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研究生:孫德華
研究生(外文):De-Hua Sun
論文名稱:貪污腐敗之成因分析─一個理論與實證的探討
論文名稱(外文):Analysis on Corruption - Discussion and Survey of the Theory and Evidences
指導教授:王鼎銘王鼎銘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wang Ding-Ming
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:政治經濟學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:經濟學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:150
中文關鍵詞:新制度主義腐化貪污
外文關鍵詞:New institutionalismCorruption
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提 要

關鍵字: 貪污,腐化,新制度主義

貪污在人類社會歷史悠久。今天,不但是發展中國家有,就是已發展的先進國家也有貪污腐化,貪污所以盛行,陳鴻瑜教授(1992)認為乃在於國家利益的觀念薄弱、極端的不平等和貧富懸殊的社會環境、及在新興國家。Samuel P. Huntington(1968)也指出現代化促成了新的財富與新的權力,腐化是擁有新資源的新人群興起後,努力以求在政治圈子內發生力量的直接結果。現代化促成政治制度在產出方面產生變革而助長腐化。可惜的是此類貪腐之實證研究仍付之闕如。
本文從Transparency International(TI)所公佈的Corruption Perceptions Index(CPI)來做量化的跨國實證分析。我們將貪污的成因分為三個模型來作假設檢定。第一模型是討論貪污與一國經濟結構的相關性。第二模型是從文化制度的角度來解析貪污的成因。第三模型是將前兩模型整合。
初步的結果發現﹕第一、從經濟、結構面來看,貪污與一個國家的國民生產毛額、社會貪富差距、國防支出、及都市化程度密不可分;第二、從文化、制度面來看,我們發現教育程度、離婚率及各發展中國家集中的位置環境與各國貪污情況的相關性顯著。從以上兩點結果來看,要解決貪腐的問題,就必需從經濟層面與文化層面同時著手,改變人們的生活條件與生活觀念。其次調整政治結構與經濟制度,積極防止非法的經濟勢力過度干擾政治過程。當然學術界加強貪污本質的研究是首要課題。
Abstract

Keywords: Corruption, New institutionalism
Corruption has existed long enough in the human history. Today, corruption activities prevail not only in the underdeveloped countries but also in the developed countries as well. Prevalence of corruption, according to Professor Chen (1992), can be attributed to the negligence of one’s duty to the country, extreme inequality and great difference in social status between the rich and the poor. Samuel P. Huntington (1968) also pointed out that modernization has brought new wealth and new power. Corruption results directly from competition among those new groups seeking power within the political circle by means of the resources they have gained. Modernization has helped the political system change in terms of output, therefore enhances corruption. It is a pity that case studies of this kind of corruption are still lacking.
The author of this article performs his cross-country case-study by means of the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) announced by Transparency International (TI). We divide corruption into 3 models for verification. The first model is used to discuss the relevance between corruption and the economics of a country. The second model is used to analyze the cause of corruption from the cultural and institutional angle. The third model combines the first and second models.
Initial results reflect that first: looking from both economical and structural angles, corruption strongly relates to the GSP, differences between the riches and the poors, self-defense expense and urbanization. Second, looking from cultural and institutional aspects, we found an apparent relevance between the level of education, divorce rate, how developing countries are located together, and their corruption activities. Judging from these two results, one should start from the economic and cultural aspects to solve corruption as a problem. Meanwhile, the living conditions and the related concepts must also be changed. Secondly, the political structure and economical institute should be adjusted to positively prevent illegal potent disturb political processes. The academic study on this problem, is of course, a matter of utter importance.
目 錄

第一章 緒論…………………………………………1
第一節 研究動機與目的…………………… 1
第二節 研究方法……………………………4
第三節 研究架………………………………6
第二章 文獻回顧…………………………………… 12
第一節 貪污、腐敗的意…………………… 14
第二節 貪污的正面與負面功……………… 21
第三節 貪污腐敗的成因…………………… 28
第四節 貪污腐敗研究之分類……………… 31
第三章 貪污腐敗理論的探討與建………………… 46
第一節 新制度主義簡析…………………… 48
第二節 新舊制度主義的比較……………… 54
第三節 貪污腐敗的制度結構……………… 57
第四節 新制度主義下的貪污腐敗架構…… 82
第四章 模型假設與實證估計………………………88
第一節 資料與變數選擇…………………… 88
第二節 模型與檢定………………………… 97
第三節 實證結果……………………………101
第五章 結論……………………………………… 107
第一節 防制貪污的三個層面………………108
第二節 國際社會反貪腐的努力……………113

參考書目……………………………………………118
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Wildavsky, Aaron. “Why Self-interest Means Less Outside of A Social Context: Cultural Contributions to A Theory of Rational Choice,” Journal of Theoretical Politics, 6(2).(1994), pp.131-159. 研討會論文:王鼎銘﹕〈貪腐的實證分析〉,台灣政治學會主辦年會暨「政黨輪替後之台灣政治」學術研討會,台北:政大公企中心。2001.12.15~12.16。何思因、郭承天:〈新制度主義與東亞政經研究〉,政治制度﹕理論與現實學術研討會,台北:中央研究院中山人文社會科學研究所。1998。宋鎮照﹕〈重建台灣社會永續發展的新社會〉,台灣的未來學術研討會,台南:成功大學社科院暨亞太研究中心主辦。2002.3.2。林繼文:〈創設、選擇與演化:制度形成的參個理論型範〉,中國政治學會年會暨新制度論學術研討會,台北:中國政治學會主辦台大法學院國際會議廳。2001.1.6。專案研究報告:上海復旦發展研究院編:《1994年﹕中國發展報告》(上海,人民出版,1994年)。學位論文:丁宗伋﹕《修憲後監察院防腐功能之研究》,成功大學政治經濟研究所碩士論文,1998。郭振昌﹕《勞工失業補償制度之研究》,台大三民主義研究所博士論文,1994。歐崇亞﹕《新制度主義與公共組織分析》,東海大學公共行政研究所碩士論文,1997。謝振達﹕《盧梭論腐化、德行與政治共同體之重建》,政大政治學系碩士論文,2000。謝振達﹕《盧梭論腐化、德行與政治共同體之重建》,政大政治學系碩士論文,2000。衛民﹕《主權爭議下之兩岸經貿政策(1990-2000)─戒急用忍政策之新制度分析》,國立台北大學公共行政暨政策學系研究所博士論文,2001。蕭斐全﹕《貪污治罪條例單獨立法必要性之探討》,國防管理學院法律學研究所碩士論文,1999。
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