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研究生:陳明珍
研究生(外文):Ming-Jen Chen
論文名稱:養護機構老人之生活適應過程研究
論文名稱(外文):The Adaptation Process of the Elderly in Long-term care Facilities
指導教授:施教裕施教裕引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chiao-Yu Shih
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立暨南國際大學
系所名稱:社會政策與社會工作學系
學門:社會服務學門
學類:社會工作學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:229
中文關鍵詞:老人養護機構生活適應老人適應
外文關鍵詞:long-term care facilitylife adaptationthe adaptation of the elderly
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  人口老化快速,老年問題日益嚴重,依據內政部社會司(2001)之統計,截至九十年十月底止,全國共計有老人長期照護機構三所,老人養護機構五百九十一所,護理之家一百多所,為瞭解老人在老人養護機構生活適應過程,影響其生活適應因素及老人在生活適應之因應策略與類型。本研究以質性研究法,透過研究者在老人養護機構多年實務經驗之長期觀察及與老人工作人員、家屬進行深度訪談方式,共計深入訪談老人養護機構之老人四十五人、老人家屬十二人及養護機構之工作人員十三人。資料分析過程經開放登錄至發現類屬加以命名,並做綜合性思考與回應整理編排成為有系統之解釋過程。
  本研究發現:(一)有許多人仍未能接納機構式照護,尤其是老年人仍普遍認為到老人養護機構是子女不孝的行為或被遺棄的結果,部分家屬也因此充滿了罪惡感。(二)在進住機構前老人之生、心理準備程度,會影響其進入機構之適應。(三)影響老人在機構適應因素,主要在老人本身及家屬、機構及其他因素四方面,老人本身因素,包括:老人人格特質、老人進住機構前之心理準備程度、家屬因素為家屬對老人之探視與支持程度,機構因素為機構所提供之照顧內容與機構工作人員照顧態度,其他因素包括:疾病因素、其他生活重大事件因素及其他社會支持。(四)大部分老人採取「認命」方式來面對及適應機構生活,且充滿無奈,即使老人接受機構生活照顧,但對機構仍然沒有歸屬感。(五)老人在機構之適應情形,在老人進住機構三個月至六個月逐漸穩定,大部分老人呈現適應狀況,少部分老人呈現不適應狀況,在適應類型中,可分為成熟正向型、隨遇而安型、自我安慰型、不適應型的老人,可分為鬱鬱寡歡型、偏激對抗型。(六)老人在機構第一個月因為環境陌生及人、事、物之不熟悉,會有不適應情形表現於生理、心理與行為上可稱為「混亂期」,而老人在進住機構之第十五天開始至第三個月期間,因逐漸地熟悉環境與周遭運作,開始有一些因應行為,為「熟悉因應期」,經過第三個月至第六個月則進入「穩定期」。
  本研究建議老人在進住機構前宜先有適切的諮詢與服務,讓老人身心準備好之後再進住機構,最好讓老人事先參觀並選擇機構,且老人與家屬皆應建立正確的安置觀念與期待。機構方面須配合並滿足家屬與老人之期待,增進家屬與老人之相互關係,進住機構後,儘快協助老人熟悉機構生活常規,常予老人關懷探視,尊重老人之個別性與特殊性及其自主意志,儘量讓老人擁有他原先擁有的個人物品及個人空間,營造舒適感覺,如此,才能讓老人在機構中獲得良好的適應。
  With fast aging of the population, the problems of the elderly are increasingly serious. According to the statistics of Department of Social Affairs, Ministry of the Interior(2001), there are totally 3 long-term care agencies, 591 long-term care facilities for the elderly and more than 100 nursing homes. In order to realize how the elderly in the facilities adapt themselves, what elements affect their adaptation and the categories they are labeled as during the process of adaptation, this research is made by the quantitative research method. The researcher has already observed the elderly in the facilities for many years and also has had a thorough talk with both the workers of the facilities and the families of the elderly. In all, the researcher has talked with 45 elderly persons, 12 families of the elderly and 13 workers of the in long-term care facilities. The information all has been analyzed, registered, categorized and named. After that, the researcher has thought of it in all aspects and then arranged it for systemic explanation.
It is found in this research that (A) There are still many elderly people who have not yet received attention from the long-term care facilities, especially those who think going to facilities is the result of the fact that their children don’t show filial piety to them and they are deserted. At the same time some of the families therefore feel guilty; (B) The elderly people’s consent to live in the long-term care facilities after full communication inevitably has some bad effect on adaptation after they enter the facilities; (C) What affects the adaptation of the elderly is mainly in the elderly themselves, families, the facilities and the others. As for the elderly, it includes elderly people’s personal quality and how well they are prepared before entering the facilities.As for the families, it lies in how often the families go to see the elderly and how hard they support them. As for the facilities itself, it includes the service the long-term care facilities provide and the attitude in which the workers look after the elderly. The others include sickness, other vital incidents and other social support. (D) Most of the elderly take “resignation-to-face” attitude to face their life in the facilities; they often think they have no other choice. Even though they are taken good care of by the facilities, they still feel they don’t belong to it. (E) The adaptation of the elderly in the facilities will be stable in about three to six months after they enter the facilities. Most of the elderly will be well-adapted, while a few of them do not get adapted well. The types of good adaptation can be categorized as follows: maturity and positiveness, reconciliation and self-consolation. On the other hand, those who can’t adapt well can be labeled as the type of depression or the type of resistance with extreme views. (F) In the first month the elderly usually are not accustomed to the environment and people there, which may cause some confusion in their minds, their bodies and even their behavior. So this first month is called the period of chaos. And from the fifteen day till the third month after the elderly go into the facilities, they gradually get used to the environment and familiar with the living styles there, and then they will respond to it better. This period of time is called the period of adaptation. The period of the third month till the six month is called the period of stabilization.
This research suggests that before entering a long-term care facilities, the elderly should have enough understanding about the facilities, which allows the elderly to become well-prepared in their minds. It is more preferable that the elderly have chances to visit the organizations and choose which organization they would like to live in. Besides, both the elderly and their families should set up a correct concept about the accommodation and also hold reasonable expectation . The facilities should cooperate and try hard to meet the expectation of both families and the elderly and hence increase the mutual relationship between families and the elderly. After the elderly live in the facilities, be sure to help them get familiar with the routines of the facilities as soon as possible, give them warmth and visits, respect their individual quality, specialty and their decision to be their own masters, allow them to possess their personal things and space they originally have, and build comfortable air. In this way, the elderly may get well-adapted in the facilities.
第一章 緒 論…………………………………………………………… 1
  第一節 研究問題與動機……………………………………………… 1
  第二節 研究目的……………………………………………………… 7
  第三節 名詞釋義……………………………………………………… 8
第二章 文獻探討………………………………………………………… 9
  第一節 養護老人之生活適應的問題………………………… ……9
  第二節 老人適應相關因素與理論………………………………… 15
  第三節 相關研究發現……………………………………………… 25
  第四節 老人遷入機構後適應過程………………………………… 32
  第五節 研究參考架構……………………………………………… 35
第三章 研究方法與設計……………………………………………… 41
  第一節 研究方法…………………………………………………… 41
  第二節 資料蒐集與方法…………………………………………… 45
  第三節 資料分析方法……………………………………………… 47
  第四節 研借信度與效度…………………………………………… 53
  第五節 研究角色與倫理考量……………………………………… 58
  第六節 研究過程…………………………………………………… 60
第四章 研究結果……………………………………………………… 65
  第一節 樣本特性…………………………………………………… 65
  第二節 老人進住前之相關因素探討……………………………… 70
  第三節 老人在機構內之適應過程………………………………… 85
  第四節 影響老人進住後適應因素……………………………… 113
  第五節 老人在機構的生活適應類型……………………………… 135
  第六節 如何協助老人適應機構…………………………………… 149
第五章 結論…………………………………………………………… 161
  第一節 研究結論…………………………………………………… 161
  第二節 討論………………………………………………………… 171
  第三節 研究限制…………………………………………………… 181
第六章 建議…………………………………………………………… 183
  第一節 老人進住機構前之諮詢與準備…………………………… 183
  第二節 老人進住機構後之協助事項……………………………… 191
  第三節 人道關懷的實踐…………………………………………… 201
  第四節 協助老人生活適應之活動方案…………………………… 204
  第五節 未來研究建議……………………………………………… 211
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