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研究生:李巧琳
研究生(外文):Chiao-Lin Li
論文名稱:人力資本的代間移轉--家庭背景對子女教育成就的影響
論文名稱(外文):Intergenerational Educational Transfer-Effects of Family Background
指導教授:陳建良陳建良引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chien-Liang Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立暨南國際大學
系所名稱:經濟學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:經濟學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:84
中文關鍵詞:人力資本跨代移轉家庭背景教育成就
外文關鍵詞:human capitalinter-generational transferfamily backgroundeducational attainment
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關於家計單位中人力資本跨代移轉機制的研究,在文獻並不缺乏,但是現存的研究大多只都是橫斷面資料的分析,關於這個移轉機制在經濟成長過程中的動態描述,仍舊有待補充。台灣在過去二、三十年來的經濟發展成就令人矚目,而伴隨所得快速成長而來的劇烈社會經濟與社會人口變遷,也成為研究家計單位人力資本投資決策的最佳樣本。
本研究主要目的在探討人力資本的跨代移轉機制,觀察家計單位中年齡在18-19歲的子女,其接受高等教育與否的選擇受到家庭背景因素的影響,並嘗試以多種選擇-大學、專科、就業以及其他四種狀態,配合豐富的家庭背景因素進行多重選擇(multiple logit)分析,以期更深入了解親子兩代間的人力資本移轉行為。
本研究特別強調人力資本的跨代移轉機制在經濟成長過程中的演進過程,因此採用行政院主計處所提供之「台灣家庭收支調查」原始磁帶資料,透過1976-1980與1996-1999年二個不同的經濟發展階段,描述經濟快速發展的過程中,家計單位對於子女高等教育人力資本投資決策的演變過程。
實證分析的結果和理論假說一致,亦即父母特性及家庭特性對子女獲得人力資本投資的多寡有決定性的影響,但是其影響程度卻隨著經濟成長而有逐漸下降的趨勢;此外,父母的性別偏好,也因為經濟成長帶來的經濟人口轉變而淡化。值得一提的是,子女性別與排行對其接受高等教育的差異,在經濟發展的早期很明顯,但是到了晚近則效果不再顯著,這個發現不僅支持相關文獻的結論,更對人力資本投資的動態機制提出新的證據,證實經濟發展將改變家計單位人力資本投資決策的模式。
With regard to studies in the inter-generational transfer mechanism of human capital within the household, literatures of such kind are quite sufficient, however, since the majority of these literatures focuses mainly on analyses of the cross-sectional data, other literatures that are concerned with the dynamic portrayal of the transfer mechanism over the process of the economic growth are yet to be replenished. Obviously, Taiwan has demonstrated outstanding economic achievements over the past thirty some years, and consequently, the acute socio-economic and socio-demographic transitions that accompany the rapid income growth has thus served as the best model for studies in the decision-making process of the human capital investment within the household.
Purpose of this study is to focus primarily on the investigation of the inter-generational transfer mechanism of human capital. And from this point on, we would then observe children aged 18-19 within the household to further understand whether the children’s choices in receiving higher education would be influenced by the family background. Moreover, we attempt to put into consideration the four alternatives, such as attending universities, junior colleges, being employed, and others, etc., and with the accommodation of various factors relating to the family background, we will then proceed with the multiple logit analysis to understand in depth the transfer behavior of human capital between the two generations.
This study places special emphasis on the inter-generational transfer mechanism of human capital over the evolving process of the economic growth. And to describe the decision-making process of the household’s human capital investment on the children’s higher education, we thus utilize the original data of “Survey of Family Income and Expenditure” from DGBAS, with the two periods, 1976-1980 and 1996-1999, to further understand each respective economic development over the time spans.
Results of the empirical analyses are in accordance with the theoretical hypotheses, and that the characteristics of the parents and of the household do play significant roles in determining the amount of the human capital investment towards the children’s education; nevertheless, the degree of influence is decreasing following the economic growth. Moreover, gender preferences of the parents are gradually fading due to the population change brought about by the economic growth. And what’s worth mentioning, is that at the early stage, the gender preference and the birth order are quite influential in the children’s receiving higher education, whereas at the later period, the effect does not seem to be that distinct. And with this finding, the result not only supports the conclusions of relevant literatures, it also proposes new evidence towards the dynamic mechanism of the human capital investment - to further prove that the economic development is sure to alter the mode of the decision-making process of the human capital investment within the household.
第一章 緒論……………………………………………………… 1
第一節 研究動機………………………………………………… 1
第二節 研究目的………………………………………………… 2
第三節 研究對象與方法………………………………………… 3
第四節 論文架構………………………………………………… 5
第二章 文獻回顧………………………………………………… 7
第一節 個人教育成就的決定因素……………………………… 7
第二節 人力資本投資的性別偏好……………………………… 11
第三章 研究方法………………………………………………… 17
第一節 資料來源與選取………………………………………… 17
第二節 基本統計量分析………………………………………… 20
第三節 家庭背景與子女教育之相對次數分析………………… 27
第四章 實證模型………………………………………………… 35
第一節 Multinomial Logit 模型……………………………… 35
第二節 實證模型設定…………………………………………… 37
第三節 變數解釋………………………………………………… 40
第五章 實證結果與分析………………………………………… 43
第一節 跨代人力資本移轉……………………………………… 43
第二節 父母所得配置的情形…………………………………… 51
第六章 結論與未來研究方向…………………………………… 54
第一節 結論……………………………………………………… 54
第二節 未來研究方向…………………………………………… 57
參考文獻…………………………………………………………… 60
一、中文文獻
1.白懿淳(1996)。「代間移轉行為之探討」。國立中央大學產業經濟研究所碩士論文。
2.吳慧瑛(2000)。「二十年來台灣地區教育發展之經濟評估」。
3.林忠正與林鶴玲(1993)。「台灣地區各族群的經濟差異」。載於張茂桂等著族群關係與國認同,頁101-160,台北:業強出版社。
4.陳建良(1996)。「家計單位內的資源配置 -- 以台灣家計收支調查為對象的實證分析」。暨大學報,1:1,頁195-236。
5.黃昆輝(1978)。「我國大學入學考試報考者與錄取者家庭社經背景之比較分析」。國立師範大學教育研究所集刊,20,頁149-326。
6.楊瑩(1988)。「台灣地區教育擴展過程中不同家庭背景子女受教機會差異之研究」。國立師範大學教育研究所博士學位論文。
7.楊瑩、陳麗欣(1993)。「台灣地區不同家庭背景子女受教機會差異之研究:高級中等教育及以上階段不同類型學校學生組成結構之分析」。台北:國立台灣大學三民主義研究所。
8.蔡貞慧、周穎政(2000)。「父母所得對子女接受高等教育的影響」。第三屆家庭與社會資源分配學術研討會論文集。
9.駱明慶(2000)。「教育成就的省籍與性別差異」。第三屆家庭與社會資源分配學術研討會論文集。
10.薛承泰(1996)。「影響國初中後教育分流得時證分析:性別、省籍、與家庭背景的差異」。台灣社會學刊,20頁,49-84。
11.謝雅茹(1985)。「我國高等教育資源運用結果之研究」。國立政治大學教育研究所碩士論文。
12.譚令蒂、于若容(1995)。「台灣地區小家庭勞動供給模型--NASH談判解家庭決策模型之應用」, 經濟論文,23:3,頁299-344。
二、英文部份
1.Alderman, H. and Gertler, P.(1988), ”The Substitutability of Public and Private Health Care for the Treatment of Children in Pakistan”, Living Standards Measurement Study, No.57, World Bank.
2.Armitage, J. and Sabot(1987), ”Socioeconomic Background and the Returns to Schooling in Two Low-Income Countries”, Economics, 54; pp.103-108.
3.Barro, Robert J. (1974). “Are Government Bonds Net Wealth?” Journal of Political Economy, pp.1095-1117.
4.Becker, G.S.,(1960),”Investment in Human Capital: A Theoretical Analysis”, Journal of Political Economy, 70(5), pp.9-49.
----1963, Human Capital- A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education, 1st ed. New Touk:Columbia University Press for the National Bureau of Economic Research.
---1974, “On the Relevance of the New Economics of the Family”, American Economic Review, 64 (2), pp. 317-19.
---1991,“Fertility and the Economy”, Economics Research Center/NORC Population Research Center Discussion Paper: 92-3. pp. 28, October 1991.
---1992, “Fertility and the Economy”, Journal of Population Economics, 5(3), pp.185-201.
5.Becker, G. and Tomes, N.(1979), "An Equilibrium Theory of the Distribution of Income and Intergenerational Mobility”, Journal of Political Economy, 87(6), pp.1153-1189.
6.Behrman, J.R.(1988), ”Intra-household Allocation of Nutrients in Rural India: Are Boys favored? Do Parents Exhibit Inequality Aversion?” Oxford Economic Papers, 40, pp.132-54.
7.Carnoy(1967), “Earnings and Schooling in Mexico”, Economic Development and Cultural Change, 15, pp.408-419.
8.Chang, Ching-His(1992), ”Historical Trends in the Equality of Educational Opportunity in Taiwan”, Taiwan Economic Review, 20:1, pp.23-50.
9.Thomas, Duncan(1990), ”Like Father, Like Mother, Like Daughter: Parental Resources and Child Height.” , The Journal of Human Resources.
10.Thomas, Duncan(1996), “Education across Generations in South Africa.”, American Economic Review, 86(2), pp.330-34.
11.Greenhalph (1985), “Sexual stratification in East Asia: The Other Side of “Growth with Equity” in East Asia”, Population and Development Review, 11(2), pp.265-314.
12.Jin-Tan Liu, James K. Hammitt, and Chyongchiou Jeng Lin(2000),”Family Background and Returns to Schooling in Taiwan.” Economics of Education Review, 19, pp.113-125.
13.Lam and Schoeni (1933), ”Effects of Family Background on Earnings and Returns to Schooling: Evidence from Brazil”, Journal of Political Economy,101(4), pp.710-740.
14.Leibowitz (1974), “Home Investments in Children”, Journal of Political Economy, 101(4), pp.710-740.
15.Lillard, Lee A. and Robert J. Willis(1994),”Intergenerational Education Mobility: Effects of Family and State in Malaysia”, The Journal of Human Resources, 29(4), pp.1126-66.
16.Lillard, Lee A. and Robert J. Willis(1997),”Motives for Intergenerational Transfers: Evidence from Malaysia”, Demography, 34(1), pp.115-34.
17.William L. Parish and Robert J. Willis(1993),”Daughter, Education, and Family Budgets-Taiwan Experiences”, The Journal of Human Resources.
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