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研究生:吳獻良
研究生(外文):Hsien-Liang, Wu
論文名稱:導覽式超媒體文件之同步架構
論文名稱(外文):A Synchronization Framework for Navigated Hypermedia Document Presentation
指導教授:陳恆佑陳恆佑引用關係
指導教授(外文):Herng-Yow, Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立暨南國際大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:50
中文關鍵詞:多媒體同步人類感觀知覺
外文關鍵詞:Multimedia synchronizationhuman perception
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同步的異常(Synchronization anomalies),也就是所謂無法同步的問題(out-of-sync),有可能在呈現多媒體文件時發生,特別是當多媒體文件於非預期的環境下播放,或者是部份的媒體被重新編輯(reauthored)。本論文提出一同步架構,可確保同步文件不會發生同步的異常現象。此架構可運用於呈現導覽式超媒體文件(Navigated Hypermedia Document Presentation)。相較於現存之呈現同步多媒體文件的方式,大多只處理時間上的同步問題;而此篇論文中,將對於三種不同的同步概念詳細的探討,這三種概念包括:時間、空間,與內容同步。依據人類的感觀知覺(human perception),實驗的結果顯示,即使媒體之間的關係經過破壞性的操作後,此同步架構仍然可將媒體間的同步效果,維持在一定的滿意程度。根據此同步架構,我們建立一系統,稱作〝新式網路同步多媒體教材〞系統(Novel Web-based Synchronization Multimedia Lecture system),此套系統目前已運作於國立暨南國際大學,學生可透過網路使用此系統學習英語。

Synchronization anomalies, or the so-called out-of-sync problems, may occur during a presentation of a distributed composite hypermedia document especially when the document is played under an unexpected environment or a portion of multimedia document is modified. This thesis presents a synchronization framework for applications of navigated hypermedia documents to ensure users against out-of-sync annoyance. In contrast to existing approaches focusing on temporal synchronization only, three distinct aspects of synchronization: temporal, spatial and content, are elaborately considered in this study. Based on human perception, experimental results show that the synchronization performance is satisfactory under the pre-designed circumstance where some of the important relationships of synchronization are destroyed. The proposed framework has now been incorporated into Novel Web-based Synchronization Multimedia Lecture (NWSML) system developed by us to assist students of the National Chi-Nan University in Taiwan to learn foreign language via web.

Contents I
List of Figures III
List of Tables IV
Abstract V
Chinese Abstract VI
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Organization of This Thesis 3
Chapter 2. Related Work 4
Chapter 3. Relationships and Synchronization between Media Objects 10
3.1 Relationships between Media Objects 10
3.1.1 Temporal Relationships 10
3.1.2 Spatial Relationships 11
3.1.3 Content Relationships 14
3.2 Synchronization Classifications 16
3.2.1 Temporal Synchronization 16
3.2.2 Spatial Synchronization 17
3.2.3 Content Synchronization 19
Chapter 4. The Proposed Synchronization Framework 21
4.1 Synchronization Mechanism for Temporal and Spatial Relations 22
4.2 Update Mechanism 23
4.3 Smoothing Mechanism 23
Chapter 5. Implementation 24
5.1 Involved Media Objects in NWSML 25
5.2 NWSML Encoder 27
5.3 NWSML Browser 31
5.4 Media Reauthoring 39
5.4.1 Content Relations between Media Objects in NWSML System 39
5.4.2 Reauthoring HTML Lecture Documents 40
5.4.3 Rethoring A/V Clips 41
Chapter 6. Experimental Results 43
6.1 Automatic Scrolling Mechanism 43
6.2 Smoothing Tele-pointer Movements Mechanism 45
6.3 Comparison between NWML and WSML 46
Chapter 7. Conclusion and Future Work 47
7.1 Conclusion 47
7.2 Future Work 48
Reference 49
Appendix A Publication List 51

Multimedia Synchronization
[Allen83] Allen, J. F., “Maintaining Knowledge about Temporal Intervals,” Communications of the ACM, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 832-843, 1983.
[Blak96] Blakowski, G. and Steinmetz, R., “A Media Synchronization Survey: Reference Model, Specification, and Case Studies,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 5-35, 1996.
[Cele00] Celentano, A. and Gaggi, O., “A Synchronization Model for Hypermedia Documents Navigation,“ Proceedings of the 2000 ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, pp. 585-591, 2000.
[Egen91] Egenhofer, M. J. and Franzosa, R. D., “Point-Set Topological Spatial Relations,” International Journal for Geographical Information Systems, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 161-174, 1991.
[Hard94] Hardman, L., Bulterman, D. C. A., and Rossum, G. V., “The Amsterdam Hypermedia Model: adding time and context to the Dexter Model,” Communication of the ACM, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 50-62, 1994.
[Iino94] Iino, M., Day, Y. F., and Ghafoor, A., “An Object-Oriented Model for Spatio-Temporal Synchronization of Multimedia Information,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems, pp. 110-19, 1994.
[Nang97] Nang, J. and Kang, S., “A New Multimedia Synchronization Specification Method for Temporal and Spatial Events,” Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems, pp. 236-243, 1997.
[Papa97] Papadias, D. and Theodoridis, Y., “Spatial Relations, Minimum Bounding Rectangles, and Spatial Data Structures,” International Journal Geographic Information System, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 111-138, 1997.
[Vazi96] Vazirgiannis, M., Theodoridis, Y., and Sellis, T., “Spatio-temporal Composition in Multimedia Applications,” Proceedings of International Workshop on Multimedia Software Development, pp. 120-127, 1996.
[Wahl94] Wahl, T. and Rothermel, K., “Representing Time in Multimedia Systems,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems, pp. 538-543, 1994.
Multimedia System
[Bach97] Bacher, C., Muller, R., Ottmann, T., and Will, M., “Authoring on the Fly: A new way of integrating telepresentation and courseware production,” Proceedings of ICCCE’97, pp. 89-96, 1997.
[Brot98] Brotherton, J. A., Bhalodia, J. R., and Abowd, G. D., “Automated Capture, Integration, and Visualization of Multiple Media Streams,” Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems, pp. 54-63, 1998.
[Chen99] Chen, H. Y., Chen, G. Y., and Hong, J. S., “Design of a Web-based Synchronized Multimedia Lecture System for Distance Education,“ IEEE International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems, pp. 887-891, 1999.
[Chiu99] Chiu, P., Kapuskar, A., Reitmeier, S., and Wilcox, L., “NoteLook: Taking Notes in Meetings with Digital Video and Ink,” Proceedings of the Seventh ACM International Conference on Multimedia (Part 1), pp. 149-158, 1999.
[eCla] eClass system, http://www.cc.gatech.edu/fce/eclass/
[Hurs99] Hurst, W. and Muller, R., “A Synchronization Model for Recorded Presentations and its Relevance for Information Retrieval,” Proceedings of the Seventh ACM International Conference on Multimedia, pp. 333-342, 1999.
[Mukh99] Mukhopadhyay, S. and Smith, B., “Passive Capture and Structuring of Lectures,” Proceedings of the Seventh ACM International Conference on Multimedia, pp. 477-487, 1999.
[Pime00] Pimentel, M. D. G., Ishiguro, Y., Kerimbaev, B., Abowd, G. D. and Guzdial, M., “Supporting Educational Activities through Dynamic Web Interfaces,” Interacting with Computers (IWC), vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 353-374, 2000.
[Rocc01] Roccetti, M. and Salomoni, P., “A Web-based Synchronized Multimedia System for Distance Education,” Proceedings of ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, pp. 94-98, 2001.
[Vazi99] Vazirgiannis, M., Kostalas, I., and Sellis, T., “Specifying and Authoring Multimedia Scenarios,” IEEE Multimedia, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 24-37, 1999.
Human Perception on Synchronization
[Stei96] Steinmetz, R., “Human Perception of Jitter and Media Synchronization,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 61-72, 1996.
Internet Reference
[Real] RealNetworks, http://www.real.com
[SMIL] Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL) Specification, http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-smil/
[Micr] HTML+TIME, http://www.microsoft.com

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