跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(107.21.85.250) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/01/18 09:05
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:張宇翔
論文名稱:MPEG-7在數位博物館物種影像查詢上之應用
論文名稱(外文):Applying MPEG-7 to Content-Based Species Image Retrieval in Digital Museum
指導教授:洪政欣洪政欣引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jen-Shin Hong
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立暨南國際大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:185
中文關鍵詞:影像檢索數位博物館
外文關鍵詞:MPEG-7content-based image retrievaldigital museum
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:8
  • 點閱點閱:380
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:88
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:3
在數位博物館中,要製作一個物種影像查詢系統通常需要花費相當多的人力與時間。本論文的目的是利用MPEG-7來架構一個標準化且易於維護的影像查詢系統,讓編輯者很方便的編輯所要查詢的物種資訊及分類方式,再利用MPEG-7工具對每種分類項目進行自動化的排序;編輯完之後,使用者可以立即的從剛剛編輯結果及使用MPEG-7工具進行特徵的查詢及相似度的查詢。
本論文使用MPEG-7來架構整個系統,使用MPEG-7的好處如下:
1、MPEG-7可以很清楚的描述影像的低階特徵(如顏色、外形、紋路等等)及影像結構資訊(影像的空間關係等等)。
2、MPEG-7可以描述整個查詢系統的結構,編輯者可以藉由修改MPEG-7的內容,很輕易更改影像查詢系統的架構。
3、MPEG-7以XML的方式描述系統的結構,可以增加人們在閱讀上方便性,以達到資料之互通性及標準化。
MPEG-7雖具有互通性及標準化,但由於它的架構龐大且複雜,本論文對MPEG-7中有關影像查詢的規格架構做完整的分析,以及詳述完成MPEG-7檔案的建立過程。本論文中發展影像分類編輯系統、查詢系統,編輯者可以經由此介面很有彈性的編輯影像查詢系統,經由編輯者編輯完成的查詢架構,使用者可以立即的從中找尋所想要的影像。我們實作了一個花的物種查詢系統,我們以此編輯系統編輯出一套花的查詢系統,我們把它分類十種顏色的特徵和18種外形的特徵,將來供使用者查詢上所使用。
另外本論文中也發展了影像語義編輯及結構性瀏覽系統,我們利用MPEG-7語義內容的定義方式讓編輯者在影像語義系統中編輯影像語義內容之後,使用者可以從中瀏覽影像內容的結構性,藉由結構性的瀏覽,使用者可以從中了解影像語義的內容結構,以及從語義結構的關係中找尋使用者想要的影像。
In a digital museum, a content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system could provide an “intuitive” query interface for users to easily access the archived data. In the literature, various CBIR system, using automatic or manual classification schemes, have been proposed. Yet, these systems use proprietary framework and data models, and thereby hinder the mechanism for system interpretability. Aiming to provide a standard and interoperable framework for multimedia description scheme, MPEG-7 dictates the overall image content query framework, data models, the images’ low-level features (e.g., color, shape, texture), as well as the imagery structures information (e.g., spatial relation). The encoding of MPEG7 data using XML description also facilitates the multimedia information’s exchangeability and standardization.
In this these, aiming to provide a standardized CBIR system for species image retrieval in a digital museum, we implement an image classification/query system completely based on the MPEG-7 framework. Our system provides a user-friendly interface for manually image classification. Then, based on user-specified low-level visual descriptors, the system use MPEG-7 tools to automatically sort the entire classified items in the database. The users, guided by the query interface based on the manual classification scheme, can then retrieve the images using query-by-features and query-by-example approach. To test the proposed MPEG-7 framework, 300 flower images have been archived, classified, and sorted using the proposed system. Meanwhile, based on semantic description framework of MPEG-7, this thesis also developed an image semantic content authoring system. The users can browse the image semantic content structure and efficiently search for semantically relevant images. The performance of the flower query system indeed shows the feasibility for using MPEG-7 framework to construct CBIR systems for species image retrieval in a digital museum.
目 錄
第一章 緒論
1.1 研究動機……………………………………………………………………………………1
1.2 研究目的……………………………………………………………………………………4
1.2.1 如何減少製作查詢系統的時間………………………………………………………4
1.2.2 可應用於不同的物種查詢……………………………………………………………4
1.2.3 可動態新增、減少影像及物種分類方式……………………………………………4
1.2.4 增加程式的可讀性……………………………………………………………………5
1.2.5 應用影像語義的結構…………………………………………………………………5
1.3 論文架構……………………………………………………………………………………6
第二章 文獻探討
2.1 MPEG-7…………………………………………………………………………………….7
2.1.1 MPEG的歷史………………………………………………………………………..…7
2.1.2 MPEG-7 的簡介………………………………………………………………………..8
2.1.3 MPEG-7架構…………………….…………………………………………………….11
2.1.3.1 MPEG-7 Systems………………………………………………………………….11
2.1.3.2 MPEG-7 Multimedia Description Schemes(MDS)…………………….……12
2.1.3.2.1基本元素(Basic Elements)…………………………………………………13
2.1.3.2.1.1 Schema Tools……………………………………………………………….13
2.1.3.2.1.1.1 Base Types………………………………………………………………15
2.1.3.2.1.1.2 Root element…………………………………………………………….17
2.1.3.2.1.1.3 Top-level Types………………………………………………………….20
2.1.3.2.1.1.3.1 BasicDescription……………………………………………………..21
2.1.3.2.1.1.3.2 ContentDescription…………………………………………………..21
2.1.3.2.1.1.3.3 ContentManagement………………………………………………..24
2.1.3.2.1.1.4 Multimedia Content Entities…………………………………………..26
2.1.3.2.1.1.4.1 MultimediaContent DS……………………………………………..26
2.1.3.2.1.1.5 Packages………………………………………………………………..29
2.1.3.2.1.1.5.1 Package DS…………………………………………………………30
2.1.3.2.1.1.6 Description Metadata…………………………………………………..31
2.1.3.2.1.1.6.1 DescriptionMetadata DS……………………………………………31
2.1.3.2.1.2 Basic datatypes…………………………………………………….………..33
2.1.3.2.1.3 Links & media localization…………………………………………………..33
2.1.3.2.1.4 Basic Tools……………………………………………………………………33
2.1.3.2.1.4.1 Places……………………………………………………………………..34
2.1.3.2.1.4.1.1 Place DS………………………………………………………………34
2.1.3.2.1.4.1.2 GeographicPointType DS……………………………………………36
2.1.3.2.1.4.2 Graphs…………………………………………………………………….37
2.1.3.2.1.4.2.1 Graph DS……………………………………………………………...37
2.1.3.2.1.4.2.2 RelationBase DS……………………………………………………..38
2.1.3.2.1.4.2.3 Relation DS……………………………………………………………38
2.1.3.2.2內容管理(Content Management)…………………………………………..40
2.1.3.2.3內容描述(Content Description)……………………………………………..40
2.1.3.2.3.1 Structural aspects…………………………………………………………...40
2.1.3.2.3.1.1 Segment entity dscription tools………………………………………...41
2.1.3.2.3.1.1.1 Segment DS………………………………………………………….42
2.1.3.2.3.1.1.2 StillRegion DS………………………………………………………..45
2.1.3.2.3.1.2 Segment arrtibute description tools…………………………………...47
2.1.3.2.3.1.2.1 SpatialMask D………………………………………………………..48
2.1.3.2.3.1.3 Segment decomposition tools………………………………………….48
2.1.3.2.3.1.3.1 Basic segment decomposition tools……………………………….49
2.1.3.2.3.1.3.2 Still region decomposition tools…………………………………….51
2.1.3.2.3.1.4 Segment relation description tools…………………………………….51
2.1.3.2.3.1.4.1 SegmentRelationBase DS………………………………………….52
2.1.3.2.3.1.4.2 SegmentRelation DS………………………………………………..52
2.1.3.2.3.1.4.3 Spatial segment relation description tools………………………..53
2.1.3.2.3.1.4.3.1 SpatialSegmentRelation DS…………………………………….53
2.1.3.2.3.1.4.3.2 DirectionalSpatialSegmentRelation DS………………………..53
2.1.3.2.3.1.4.3.3 TopologicalSpatialSegmentRelation DS……………………….54
2.1.3.2.3.2 Semantic aspects…………………………………………………………..55
2.1.3.2.3.2.1 Abstraction Model……………………………………………………….57
2.1.3.2.3.2.2 Semantic entity description tools………………………………………58
2.1.3.2.3.2.2.1 SemanticBase DS……………………………………………………59
2.1.3.2.3.2.2.2 SemanticContainer DS………………………………………………61
2.1.3.2.3.2.2.3 Semantic DS………………………………………………………….62
2.1.3.2.3.2.2.4 Object DS…………………………………………………………….62
2.1.3.2.3.2.2.5 AgentObject DS………………………………………………………63
2.1.3.2.3.2.2.6 Event DS………………………………………………………………63
2.1.3.2.3.2.2.7 Concept DS…………………………………………………………..65
2.1.3.2.3.2.2.8 SemanticState DS……………………………………………………65
2.1.3.2.3.2.2.9 SemanticPlace DS……………………………………………………65
2.1.3.2.3.2.2.10 SemanticTime DS…………………………………………………..67
2.1.3.2.3.2.3 Semantic attribute description tools……………………………………70
2.1.3.2.3.2.4 Semantic relation description tools…………………………………….70
2.1.3.2.3.2.4.1 SemanticRelationBase DS………………………………………….71
2.1.3.2.3.2.4.2 SemanticRelation DS………………………………………………..71
2.1.3.2.3.2.4.3 Semantic Entity Relation Tools……………………………………..71
2.1.3.2.3.2.4.3.1 SemanticBaseRelation DS………………………………………71
2.1.3.2.3.2.4.3.2 NArySemanticBaseRelation DS…………………………………72
2.1.3.2.3.2.4.3.3 SemanticBaseSemanticBaseRelation DS……………………..72
2.1.3.2.3.2.4.3.4 SemanticSemanticBaseRelation DS……………………………74
2.1.3.2.3.2.4.3.5 SemanticSemanticRelation DS………………………………….74
2.1.3.2.3.2.4.3.6 ObjectObjectRelation DS…………………………………………74
2.1.3.2.3.2.4.3.7 ObjectEventRelation DS………………………………………….75
2.1.3.2.3.2.4.3.8 EventEventRelation DS…………………………………………..78
2.1.3.2.3.2.4.3.9 ConceptSemanticBaseRelation DS……………………………..79
2.1.3.2.3.2.4.3.10 SemanticStateSemanticBaseRelation DS…………………….80
2.1.3.2.3.2.4.3.11 SemanticStateSemanticStateRelation DS……………………..80
2.1.3.2.3.2.4.3.12 SemanticPlaceSemanticBaseRelation DS…………………….80
2.1.3.2.3.2.4.3.13 SemanticPlaceSemanticPlaceRelation DS……………………81
2.1.3.2.3.2.4.3.14 SemanticTimeSemanticBaseRelation DS……………………..82
2.1.3.2.3.2.4.3.15 SemanticTimeSemanticTimeRelation DS……………………..83
2.1.3.2.4內容組織(Content Organization)…………………..………………………..84
2.1.3.2.4.1 Collections…………………………………………………………………….85
2.1.3.2.4.1.1 Collection DS……………………………………………………………..85
2.1.3.2.4.1.2 ContentCollection DS……………………………………………………86
2.1.3.2.4.1.3 SegmentCollection DS…………………………………………………..87
2.1.3.2.4.1.4 DescriptorCollection DS…………………………………………………87
2.1.3.2.4.1.5 ConceptCollection DS…………………………………………………..88
2.1.3.2.4.1.6 MixedCollection DS……………………………………………………..89
2.1.3.2.4.1.7 StructuredCollection DS………………………………………………..90
2.1.3.2.4.2 Models……………………………………………………………………….91
2.1.3.2.4.2.1 Model DS…………………………………………………………………91
2.1.3.2.4.3 Probability models…………………………………………………………92
2.1.3.2.4.4 Analytic models…………………………………………………………….92
2.1.3.2.4.4.1 AnalyticModel DS………………………………………………………92
2.1.3.2.4.4.2 CollectionModel DS……………………………………………………94
2.1.3.2.4.4.3 DescriptorModel DS…………………………………………………..95
2.1.3.2.4.4.4 ProbabilityModelClass DS……………………………………………96
2.1.3.2.4.5 Cluster models…………………………………………………………….96
2.1.3.2.4.5.1 ClusterModel DS………………………………………………………96
2.1.3.2.4.6 Classification models……………………………………………………..98
2.1.3.2.4.6.1 ClassificationModel DS……………………………………………….98
2.1.3.2.4.6.2 ClusterClassificationModel DS……………………………………….98
2.1.3.2.4.6.3 ProbabilityClassificationModel DS…………………………………..99
2.1.3.3 MPEG-7 Visual…………………………………………………………………..100
2.1.3.3.1 基本結構(Basic structures)……………………………………………..100
2.1.3.3.1.1 Grid layout…………………………………………………………………100
2.1.3.3.1.2 2D-3D Multiple view………………………………………………………101
2.1.3.3.2 顏色(Color)Descriptors…………………………………………………..102
2.1.3.3.2.1 Color space………………………………………………………………..102
2.1.3.3.2.2 Color quantization…………………………………………………………105
2.1.3.3.2.3 Dominant color…………………………………………………………….106
2.1.3.3.2.4 Scalable color………………………………………………………………107
2.1.3.3.2.5 Color layout…………………………………………………………………108
2.1.3.3.2.6 Color structure…………….. ………………………………………………109
2.1.3.3.2.7 GoF/GoP(group-of-frames/pictures) Color………………………………111
2.1.3.3.3 紋路(Texture)Descriptors………………………………………………….111
2.1.3.3.3.1 Homogeneous texture………………………………………………………111
2.1.3.3.3.2 Texture browsing…………………………………………………………….114
2.1.3.3.3.3 Edge components histogram………………………………………………116
2.1.3.3.4 外形(Shape)Descriptors……………………………………………………117
2.1.3.3.4.1 Region shape………………………………………………………………..117
2.1.3.3.4.2 Contour shape……………………………………………………………….119
2.2 影像特徵擷取………………………………………………………………………………121
2.2.1 顏色……………………………………………………………………………………..121
2.2.1.1 Color Histogram…………………………………………………………………….121
2.2.1.2 Dominant Colors……………………………………………………………………121
2.2.1.3 顏色空間的分佈……………………………………………………………………121
2.2.2 紋路…………………………………………………………………………………….121
2.2.2.1 Co-occurrence Matrix-Based Approach…………………………………………122
2.2.2.2 Edge-Based Approach…………………………………………………………….122
2.2.2.3 Wavelet-Based Approach…………………………………………………………122
2.2.3 外形…………………………………………………………………………………….122
2.2.3.1 Region-based………………………………………………………………………122
2.2.3.2 Boundary-based……………………………………………………………………122
2.3 其它MPEG-7的實作研究……………………………………………………………….122
2.3.1 南韓資訊大學(ICU)………………………………………………………………..122
2.3.2 哥倫比亞大學(columbia)………………………………………………………….123
第三章 MPEG-7檔案的建立
3.1 MPEG-7 Content………………………………………………………………………….124
3.2多媒體內容結構……………………………………………………………………………126
3.2.1多媒體實體資料………………………………………………………………………..126
3.2.1.1 影像實體……………………………………………………………………………126
3.2.1.1.1 影像的分解……………………………………………………………………..129
3.2.1.2 影像實體收集………………………………………………………………………131
3.2.1.2.1 內容收集(ContentCollection)………………………………………………132
3.2.1.2.2 segments收集(SegmentCollection)………………………………………133
3.2.1.2.3 複合收集(MixedCollection)………………………………………………….134
3.2.1.2.4 結構化收集(StructuredCollection)………………………………………….136
3.2.2 多媒體抽象資料……………………………………………………………………….137
3.2.2.1 影像的語義世界(Semantics)………………………………………………….139
3.2.2.1.1 語義實體元件…………………………………………………………………..139
3.2.2.1.2 語義的關係……………………………………………………………………..139
3.2.2.1.3 語義的收集(ConceptCollection)…………………………………………..145
3.2.2.2 影像的模組化資料…………………………………………………………………146
3.3 特徵描述單元Description Unit…………………………………………………………148
第四章 影像編輯與查詢系統
4.1 使用者與編輯者需求分析………………………………………………………………..150
4.1.1 使用者需求…………………………………………………………………………….150
4.1.2 編輯者需求…………………………………………………………………………….151
4.2系統設計……………………………………………………………………………………151
4.2.1 影像實體的描述……………………………………………………………………….151
4.2.1.1 影像實體的分解……………………………………………………………………152
4.2.2 Segments收集(SegmentCollection)……………………………………………..153
4.2.3 語義的收集(ConceptCollection)………………………………………………….153
4.2.3.1 物種種類的收集……………………………………………………………………153
4.2.3.2 分類項目的收集……………………………………………………………………154
4.2.4 收集模組(CollectionModel)……………………………………………………….155
4.2.5 叢集分類模組(ClusterClassificationModel)……………………………………..156
4.2.6 影像特徵……………………………………………………………………………….159
4.3 系統架構…………………………………………………………………………………..160
4.3.1 編輯系統架構………………………………………………………………………….160
4.3.2 查詢系統架構………………………………………………………………………….165
4.3.2.1 特徵查詢……………………………………………………………………………165
4.3.2.2 相似度查詢…………………………………………………………………………166
4.4 系統實作……………………………………………………………………………………167
4.4.1 編輯系統實作…………………………………………………………………………..167
4.4.2 查詢系統實作…………………………………………………………………………..174
4.5 影像語義的實作應用………………………………………………………………………176
4.5.1 影像語義的編輯實作…………………………………………………………………..176
4.5.2 影像語義的結構瀏覽…………………………………………………………………..179
第五章 結論及未來發展…………………………………………………….182
參考文獻……………………………………………………………..…………………..186
Filickner, M. and Sawhney, H. and Niblack, W. and Ashley, J. and Huang, W. and Dom, B. and Gorkani, M. and Hafine, J. and Lee, D. and Petkovic, D. and Steele, D. and Yanker, P., Query by Image and Video Content: The QBIC System, IEEE Computer, Vol: 28 9, Sept. 1995, Page(s): 23 -32.
http://breezy7.eee.ntu.edu.sg:8000/~clwang/Query.html
http://ivory.icu.ac.kr/
http://ivory.icu.ac.kr/ivy-ps_icu_ac.html
http://nayana.ece.ucsb.edu/M7TextureDemo/Demo/client/M7TextureDemo.html
http://www.ctr.columbia.edu/
http://www.ctr.columbia.edu/~ana/MPEG7/MPEG7project.html
http://www.lis.e-technik.tu-muenchen.de/research/bv/topics/mmdb/mpeg7.html
http://www.lycc.org.tw/kavalan.htm
http://www.sinica.edu.tw/~dlproj/museum/studio/gra/gra2/gra2.html
http://zelda.snu.ac.kr/mpeg7demo/mpeg7demo.html
International Telecommunication Union, http://www.itu.int
International Standarization Organization, http://www.iso.ch
Li, Z.N. and Zaiane, O.R. and Taube, Z., Illumination Invariance and Object Model in Content-Based Image and Video Retrieval, Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation 10, 219—244 (1999).
Ma, W.Y. and Manjunath, B.S., A texture thesaurus for browsing large aerial photographs, Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 1997.
Ma, W.Y. and Manjunath, B.S., Netra: A toolbox for navigating large image databases, in Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. On Image Processing, 1997.
Manjunath, B.S. and Ma, W.Y., Texture features for browsing and retrieval of image data, IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol: 18 (8), Aug. 1996.
MPEG Systems Sub-group,” Information technology - Multimedia content description interface — Part 1 Systems”, Doc. ISO/MPEG N4002, MPEG Singapore Meeting, March 2001
MPEG Systems Sub-group,”Information Technology - Multimedia Content Description Interface—Part 2 Description definition language”, Doc. ISO/MPEG N4002, MPEG Singapore Meeting, March 2001
MPEG Systems Sub-group,”Information Technology - Multimedia Content Description Interface- part 6: Reference Software (Version 1.0)”, Doc. ISO/MPEG N4006, MPEG Pisa Meeting, January 2001
MPEG Systems Sub-group,”MPEG-7 Applications Document v.10”, Doc. ISO/MPEG N3943, MPEG Pisa Meeting, January 2001
MPEG Systems Sub-group,”MPEG-7 Multimedia Description Schemes XM (Version 7.0)”, Doc. ISO/MPEG N4002, MPEG Singapore Meeting, March 2001
MPEG Systems Sub-group,”MPEG-7 Visual part of eXperimentation Model Version 9.0”, Doc. ISO/MPEG N3914, MPEG Pisa Meeting, January 2001
Ortega, M. and Rui, Y. and Chakrabarti, K. and Mehrotra, S. and Huang T.S., Supporting Similarity Queries in MARS, in Proc. of ACM Multimedia 97.
Parker, J.R., Algorithms for Image Processing and Computer Vision, Wiley Computer Publishing Company.
Pentland, A. and Picard, R.W. and Sclaroff, S., Photobook: Content-based manipulation of image databases, International Journal of Computer Vision, 18 (3), Jun. 1996, Page(s): 233-254.
Puzicha, J. and Buhmann, J.M. and Rubner, Y. and Tomasi, C., Empirical Evaluation of Dissimilarity Measures for Color and Texture, in Proc. of the 7th IEEE Int. Conf. on Computer Vision, 1999. (ICCV''99) Vol: 2.
Rubner, Y. and Tomasi, C., Texture metrics, in Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 1998. Vol: 5.
Smith, J.R. and Chang, S.F., VisualSEEk: a fully automated content-based image query system, in Proc. of ACM Multimedia 96.
Tamura, H. and Mori, S. and Yamawaki, T., Texture features corresponding to visual perception, IEEE Trans. on System, Man and Cybernetics, SMC-8(6), 1978.
Video Group,”Information Technology - Multimedia Content Description Interface—Part 3 Visual”, Doc. ISO/MPEG N4062, MPEG Singapore Meeting, March 2001
Video Group,”Information Technology - Multimedia Content Description Interface—Part 5 Multimedia Description Schemes”, Doc. ISO/MPEG N3966, MPEG Singapore Meeting, March 2001
Video Group,” MPEG-7 Visual part of eXperimentation Model Version 9.0”, Doc. ISO/MPEG N3914, MPEG Pisa Meeting, January 2001
XML Path Language (XPath) Version 1.0, W3C Recommendation 16, November 1999, http://www.w3.org/TR/xpath
XML Schema Part 0: Primer, W3C Candidate Recommendation, 24 October 2000 , http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-0/
XML Schema Part 1: Structures, W3C Candidate Recommendation, 24 October 2000, http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-1/
XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, W3C Candidate Recommendation, 24 October 2000, http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/
Wu, P. and Manjunanth, B.S. and Newsam, S.D. and Shin, H.D., A texture descriptor for image retrieval and browsing, in Proc. of IEEE Workshop on Content-Based Access of Image and Video Libraries, 1999. (CBAIVL ''99).
陳必衷,「蝴蝶影像內容檢索」,台灣大學資訊工程研究所碩士論文,民89年6月
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top