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研究生:王士剛
研究生(外文):Shi-Gung Wang
論文名稱:高爾夫下桿順序對桿頭速度的影響
論文名稱(外文):The correlation between sequential movement and club head speed during golf down swing
指導教授:相子元相子元引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立體育學院
系所名稱:教練研究所
學門:民生學門
學類:競技運動學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:40
中文關鍵詞:肌電球桿揮桿高爾夫
外文關鍵詞:EMGclubswinggolf
相關次數:
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高爾夫下桿期右腳至左腳的重心轉移動作,早於桿頭觸球或晚於桿頭觸球,兩種不同的下桿順序對桿頭速度是否有影響?另根據Asmussen (1960)前傾與旋轉的上身背部肌肉是涉及抵抗反作用力最明顯的的肌肉,此是否形成下桿期的背闊肌早於胸大肌收縮的根據,此根據對桿頭速度亦會有何影響?因而下桿期左腳最大垂直分力的時間、桿頭觸球的時間、以及背闊肌與胸大肌的先或後的收縮時序,乃為檢定下桿順序的指標,亦即本實驗的目的在於探討下桿順序對桿頭速度的影響。
下桿時體重在右腳的最大垂直分力(Max vertical force)的時間至左腳最大垂直分力的時間,稱為下桿期下身動作的「重心轉移期」(weight transform phase),而左足最大垂直分力的時間至桿頭觸球的時間,稱為上身動作的「鞭打擊球期」(whipping phase),背闊肌開始收縮的時間至胸大肌開始收縮的時間,稱為「肌肉工作時間差」(time difference of contraction)。 兩片測力板、桿頭測速器、肌電儀以及設計於測力板上的揮桿草皮,被安排於實驗場地。以Kistler系統1000Hz的取樣頻率來攫取最大垂直分力的資料,置於桿身尖端(tip)的桿頭計速器的單位為公尺╱秒,兩片肌電極訊號偵測器(electrode detectors)分別置於背闊肌與胸大肌表面,肌肉收縮活動的訊號以Bio-Pac系統與AcqKnowledge軟體取樣頻率1000Hz來攫取。
三名國家代表隊的優秀選手設定為A組,四名初學者設定為B組,進行每人30下的揮桿測試,桿頭速度為依變數並進行依變數與自變數的統計分析。在下身引導上身的背闊肌早於胸大肌收縮情形下,發現A組的重心轉移期時間(0.250 ±0.087sec)比B組(0.478±0.290sec)快, A組的鞭打擊球期時間(0.058 ±0.01 sec)比B組(0.049±0.25sec)長,A組的肌肉工作時間差(0.448±0.18 sec)比B組(0.691±0.370sec)短,同時A組的桿頭速度(44.83±1.14 m/sec)比B組(37.27±3.80m/sec) 快。在上身引導下身的胸大肌早於背闊肌收縮的情形下出現B組的78次揮桿,其桿頭速度明顯降低至28.74±2.02 m/se。比較兩組各變數的獨立樣本T考驗,顯示B組的重心轉移期時間未達顯著關係外,其它皆達顯著關係。檢定選手組表現在各項變數的相關性質,則顯示重心轉移期時間、鞭打擊球期、肌肉工作時間差,與桿頭速度呈相關水準(p<.01) 以上顯示必需有下身引導上身的下桿順序,始能使桿頭明顯加速。
Will there be different results on the club head speed which concern with the time of ball impacted is earlier or late to the time of maximum vertical force on left foot, and according to Asmussen (1960), the counteraction of gravity is maintained primarily by the back muscle during trunk forward rotation, so will there be different results on the club head speed which is due to the contraction time of latissimus dorsi is prior or late to that of pectoral major? Those points of view pointed out the sequential movement can be checked by time of weight on left foot, impact, and sequential of muscles contraction during down swing. So the intent of this study is to find out the sequential movement of down swing and its affection on the club head velocity. The time between the maximum vertical force on right and left foot named “weight transform phase”, on left foot and impact named “whipping phase”. The start time between latissimus dorsi and pectoral major`s contraction named “time difference of contraction”.
Two separate force plates, club head speed meter, EMG and an artificial swing mate on force plate were arranged in laboratory. Samples of vertical force were collected with 1000 Hz rate in Kistler system, speed meter(m/sec)was put on the neck of club head, and the muscles activity data with 1000 Hz rate in Bio-Pac system and AcqKnowledge software were obtained from electrode detectors on latissimus dorsi and pectoral major. Three elite golfers from national team members and four beginners were tested and named A and B group. We found action phase of A group was 0.250 ±0.087 sec and of B group was 0.478 ±0.290sec, reaction phase of A group was 0.058 ±0.01 sec and of B group was 0.049 ±0.25sec sec, time difference of contraction of A group was 0.448 ±0.18 sec and of B group was 0.691 ±0.370 sec and club head speed of A group was 44.83 ±1.14 m/sec and of B group was 37.27 ±3.80 m/sec. Moreover, there were 78 times of B group performing the incorrect sequential movement during down swing which caused the contraction time of pectoral major prior to latissimus dorsi and reduce the club head speed to 28.74±2.02 m/sec. The T test of two groups shown the significant difference on all factors except action phase of B group, and the correlation test of A group shown that action phase, reaction phase, and time difference of contraction were significant related to club head speed(p<.01). The results shown that the correct sequential movement could increase the club head speed during golf down swing.
壹、緒 論

第一節 研究背景------------------------------------------------1
第二節 研究動機------------------------------------------------2
第三節 研究目的------------------------------------------------2
第四節 研究假設------------------------------------------------3
第五節 名詞解釋------------------------------------------------4

貳、文獻探討

第一節 根據肌肉收縮時序的高爾夫動作分期---------------7
第二節 下身重心轉移期與背闊肌的收縮--------------------9
第三節 地表反作用力、足底扭力與桿頭速度的探討-------9
第四節 桿頭移動時間與身體重心位置的比較--------------10
第五節 各關節肢段行徑模式與時間的區分-----------------10
第六節 握把壓力大小與時間上的探討----------------------11
第七節 文獻總結----------------------------------------------11

參、研究方法

第一節 研究對象----------------------------------------------13
第二節 實驗時間與地點--------------------------------------13
第三節 實驗儀器與設備--------------------------------------13
第四節 實驗步驟
一、場地佈置-----------------------------------------17
二、實驗流程-----------------------------------------18
三、實驗方法-----------------------------------------19
第五節 資料蒐集與分析流程
一、重心轉移期的測力板與肌電資料蒐集---------20
二、鞭打擊球期的測力板與肌電資料蒐集---------21
三、桿頭最大速度的資料蒐集----------------------22
四、資料分析方法與流程----------------------------23

肆、研究結果與討論

第一節 各項變數的描述統計與與討論---------------------25
一、下桿重心轉移期對桿頭速度的討論------------26
二、肌肉收縮時間差與桿頭速度的討論------------28
三、鞭打擊球期時間與桿頭速度的討論------------29
第二節 各項變數的T考驗-----------------------------------31
第三節 依變數與自變數的相關性檢驗
一、A組的相關性討論與假設上的驗證-------------32
二、B組正值的相關性與A組的比較---------------33
三、B組負值的相關性與A組的比較---------------33
第四節 桿頭速度與各項變數的多項式曲線分析-----------34

伍、結論與建議

第一節 有關動作技術訓練上的建議-------------------------36
第二節 有關訓練時的運動傷害預防與調查-----------------37
第三節 有關後續實驗者的建議-----------------------------37

文獻參考------------------------------------------------38

附錄一 受試者同意書----------------------------------------40
一、中文部分:
1.王建智(民89):高球天下雜誌高爾夫動作力學分析專欄,第95~99期。台北:綠德文化出版社。
2.藍于青(民90):國立台灣師範大學體育研究所碩士論文,高爾夫球桿桿身與桿頭在不同揮桿速度對球速度之影響。

二、英文部分:
1.Asmussen, E. (1960). The weight-carrying function of the humen spine. Acta Orthor Scand, 29, 276-290.
2.Barrentin, S. W., Fleising, G. S., and Johnson, H. (1994). Ground reaction forces and torques of professional and amateur golfers. Science and Golf, II, 33-39.
3.Budney, D. R. (1979). Measuring grip pressure during the golf swing. Research Quarterly, 50, 2, 272-277.
4.Carlsoo, S. (1967). A kinetic analysis of the golf swing. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 7, 76-82.
5.Cooper, J. M., Bates, B. T., Bedi, J., & Scheuchenzuber, J. (1974). Kinematic and kinetic anylysis of the golf swing. Biomechanics IV. Baltimore, University Park Press.
6.Frank, W., Jobe., Diane, R., Moynes., & Daniel, J. (1986). Rotator cuff function during a golf swing. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 14, (5), 388-392.
7.Frank, W. J., Jacquelin, P., & Marilyn, P. (1989). Electro-
myographic shoulder activity in men and women professional golfers. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 17, (6), 782-787.
8.Hosea., & Gatt. (1996), Back Pain in golf. Clinics in sports medicine, 15, (1), 37-53.
9.Helen, J. h., & Montgomery, J. (1995). Daniels & Worthing-
ham`s Muscle Testing Techniques of Manual Examina-
tion 6th. W.B.Saunders Company. USA.
10.Linning, D. L. (1994). A concise method of specifying the geometry and timing of golf swings. Science and GolfⅡ,77-84.
11.Richard, J., Farrell, M., Kent, J., & Kraft, R. (1985). Weight transfer patterns during the golf swing. Research Quarterly of Exercise and Sport, 56, (4), 361-365.
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