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研究生:彭文立
研究生(外文):Wei-Li Peng
論文名稱:以反轉理論探討跳傘參與者刺激尋求動機、覺醒、焦慮、情緒與跳傘表現之相關研究
論文名稱(外文):The Relationships Among Parachuters’ Sensation Seeking Motive, Arousal, Anxiety, Emotion, and Performance - An Application of Reversal Theory
指導教授:季力康季力康引用關係
指導教授(外文):Li-Kong Chi
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立體育學院
系所名稱:教練研究所
學門:民生學門
學類:競技運動學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:114
中文關鍵詞:刺激尋求動機覺醒焦慮情緒反應跳傘表現
外文關鍵詞:Sensation Seeking MotiveArousalAnxietyEmotionParachuting Performance
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:14
  • 點閱點閱:1987
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:524
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:4
摘 要
本研究在結合刺激尋求動機及反轉理論架構中的重要變項來探討跳傘參與者刺激尋求動機、覺醒、焦慮、情緒反應及跳傘表現之相關及差異情形。以陸軍航空特戰司令部30名「神龍小組隊員」(精熟組)及87名「基本傘訓受訓學員」(初學組)為研究對象,平均年齡分別為28.17±5.71歲及19.77±0.74歲,參與者在跳傘前分別填寫刺激尋求量表、有目的狀態量表、情緒反應量表及跳傘前狀態性焦慮量表,並在完成跳傘後實施跳傘表現自我評量表填寫。以皮爾遜積差相關及獨立樣本t考驗探討跳傘前參與者刺激尋求動機、覺醒、焦慮、情緒反應及跳傘表現之相關及差異情形,並驗證個體在經歷高覺醒程度(知覺最大危險前後)時,情緒狀態會由最大焦慮反轉至最大興奮情形。所得結果如下:
(一) 刺激尋求動機傾向愈高者,在跳傘前會有較高的覺醒水準、自信心、正向情緒,較低的身體焦慮、負向情緒,以及較好的跳傘表現。
(二) 覺醒差異愈小者,會有較高的自信心、正向情緒,較低的負向情緒以及較好的跳傘表現。
(三) 精熟組比初學組在跳傘前有較高的刺激尋求動機、自信心、正向情緒反應,較低的身體性焦慮及負向情緒反應,並更傾向於追求覺醒的無目的狀態。
(四) 高刺激尋求動機組比低刺激尋求動機組在跳傘前有更高度的覺醒程度、自信心、正向情緒,較低的身體焦慮、負向情緒以及更好的跳傘表現。
(五) 研究結果支持了跳傘參與者在經歷高覺醒程度(知覺最大危險前後)時,情緒狀態會由最大焦慮反轉至最大興奮情形。
Abstract
This study combined sensation seeking motives and reversal theory examining the relationships among parachuters’ sensation seeking motives, arousal, anxiety, emotion, and parachuting performance. A total of 117 parachuters in the Army Aviation Special Training Commandant, including 30 proficient parachuters and 87 non-proficient parachuters participated in this study. Each participant was asked to complete SSS, TSM, TESI, CSAI-2 scales one hour before parachuting. Participant’s performance was also assessed. After collecting the data, Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Independent t-test were used to investigate the relationships and the differences on parachuters’ sensation seeking motive, arousal, anxiety, emotion, and parachuting performance. Meanwhile, the hypothesis that emotion reverses from maximum anxiety to maximum excitement was also examined. The findings are summarized as follows.
(1) The parachuters’ sensation seeking motive was positively related to their arousal level, self-confidence, and positive emotion. Specifically, the higher the sensation seeking motive the parachuters had, the higher the arousal level, self-confidence, positive emotion, better performance, and the lower somatic anxiety.
(2) The discrepancy of preferred arousal and felt arousal was negatively correlated with self-confidence, positive emotion, performance, and positively related to negative emotion. Specifically, the smaller the discrepancy of preferred arousal and felt arousal differences, the higher the self-confidence and positive emotion; the better the parachute performance; but the lower the negative emotion.
(3) Proficient parachuters had higher sensation seeking motive, self-confidence, and positive emotion, but lower somatic anxiety, lower negative emotion than those of non-proficient parachuters. It was found that proficient parachuters tended to seek for arousal.
(4) High sensation seeking motive participants reported higher arousal level, self-confidence, and positive emotion than low sensation seeking motive participants. However, high sensation seeking motive participants reported lower somatic anxiety, negative emotion, and performed better than low sensation seeking motive participants.
(5) This study supported the hypothesis that parachuters’ emotion will reverse from maximum anxiety to maximum excitement after having high-arousal experience (i.e., awareness of maximum danger).
目 錄
第一章 緒  論--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
第一節 研究背景---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
第二節 研究目的---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6
第三節 研究問題---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7
第四節 名詞解釋與操作型定義---------------------------------------------------------- 7
第二章 文獻探討--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10
第一節 運動情境中探討覺醒、焦慮、情緒與表現的相關理論發展與研究---- 10
第二節 反轉理論及其相關研究---------------------------------------------------------- 23
第三節 運動情境中驗證反轉理論的研究---------------------------------------------- 32
第四節 刺激尋求動機理論及其相關研究---------------------------------------------- 36
第五節 探討跳傘情境中心理變化的相關研究---------------------------------------- 40
第六節 研究假設---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 43
第三章 研究方法--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 45
第一節 研究架構---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 45
第二節 研究對象---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 46
第三節 研究工具---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 46
第四節 研究程序---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 52
第五節 資料分析與處理------------------------------------------------------------------- 56
第四章 研究結果--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 57
第一節 不同水準跳傘參與者在跳傘前的刺激尋求動機、覺醒、焦慮、情緒反應及跳傘表現之相關情形---------------------------------------------- 57
第二節 不同水準跳傘參與者在跳傘前的刺激尋求動機、覺醒、焦慮及情緒反應之差異情形------------------------------------------------------------- 64
第三節 高、低刺激尋求組在覺醒、焦慮、情緒反應及跳傘表現之差異情形---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 66
第四節 個體在經歷高覺醒程度(知覺最大危險前後)時,情緒狀態會由最大焦慮反轉至最大興奮之驗證情形------------------------------------- 72
第伍章 討論---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 76
第一節 不同水準跳傘參與者在跳傘前的刺激尋求動機、覺醒、焦慮、情緒反應及跳傘表現之相關情形---------------------------------------------- 76
第二節 不同水準跳傘參與者在跳傘前的刺激尋求動機、覺醒、焦慮及情緒反應之差異情形------------------------------------------------------------- 80
第三節 高、低刺激尋求組在覺醒、焦慮、情緒反應及跳傘表現之差異情形---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 82
第四節 個體在經歷高覺醒程度(知覺最大危險前後)時,情緒狀態會由最大焦慮反轉至最大興奮之驗證情形------------------------------------- 84
第六章 結論與建議----------------------------------------------------------------------- 86
第一節 結論---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 86
第二節 建議---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 88
參考文獻----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 91
附錄------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 106
附錄一 參與者同意書及基本資料表---------------------------------------------------- 106
附錄二 刺激尋求量表---------------------------------------------------------------------- 108
附錄三 有目的狀態量表------------------------------------------------------------------- 110
附錄四 情緒反應量表---------------------------------------------------------------------- 111
附錄五 跳傘前狀態性焦慮量表---------------------------------------------------------- 112
附錄六 跳傘表現自我評量表------------------------------------------------------------- 113
表 目 錄
表3-1 刺激尋求動機量表之內部一致性分析摘要表--------------------- 48
表3-2 情緒反應量表刪題後因素分析結果及內部一致性分析摘要表------- 50
表3-3 跳傘前狀態性焦慮量表之內部一致性分析摘要表----------------- 51
表4-1 精熟組在跳傘前之刺激尋求動機、覺醒、焦慮、情緒反應及跳傘表現之簡單相關矩陣----------------------------------------- 58
表4-2 初學組在跳傘前之刺激尋求動機、覺醒、焦慮、情緒反應及跳傘表現之簡單相關矩陣----------------------------------------- 59
表4-3 全體參與者在跳傘前之刺激尋求動機、覺醒、焦慮、情緒反應及跳傘表現之簡單相關矩陣------------------------------------- 60
表4-4 精熟組與初學組之刺激尋求動機與覺醒、焦慮、情緒反應及跳傘表現之相關摘要表------------------------------------------- 61
表4-5 精熟組與初學組之覺醒差異與焦慮、情緒反應及跳傘表現之相關摘要表----------------------------------------------------- 63
表4-6 精熟組與初學組在跳傘前刺激尋求動機、覺醒、焦慮及情緒反應之差異比較表----------------------------------------------- 65
表4-7 精熟組刺激尋求動機之描述性統計摘要表------------------------- 66
表4-8 精熟組刺激尋求動機高低者在覺醒、焦慮、情緒反應及跳傘表現之差異比較表----------------------------------------------- 67
表4-9 初學組刺激尋求動機之描述性統計摘要表----------------------- 68
表4-10 初學組刺激尋求動機高低者在覺醒、焦慮、情緒反應及跳傘表現之差異比較表----------------------------------------------- 69
表4-11 全體參與者刺激尋求動機描述性統計摘要表--------------------- 70
表4-12 全體參與者刺激尋求高低者在覺醒、焦慮、情緒反應及跳傘表現之差異比較表----------------------------------------------- 71
圖 目 錄
圖2-1 Martens 的運動競賽焦慮產生過程--------------------------------------------- 12
圖2-2 驅力理論的概念圖----------------------------------------------------------------- 14
圖2-3 覺醒水準與工作表現的關係----------------------------------------------------- 16
圖2-4 大災難模式的預測----------------------------------------------------------------- 21
圖2-5 覺醒水準與情緒體驗的關係模式----------------------------------------------- 23
圖2-6 有目的動機狀態與無目的動機狀態之不同特徵----------------------------- 26
圖2-7 影響覺醒水準與情緒體驗的可能選擇----------------------------------------- 31
圖2-8 個體在高度覺醒時經驗到最大焦慮點的百分比----------------------------- 42
圖2-9 個體在高度覺醒時經驗到最大興奮點的百分比----------------------------- 42
圖3-1 研究架構圖-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 45
圖3-2 研究步驟圖-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 55
圖4-1 初學組第一次及第五次跳傘並經歷高覺醒程度時,經驗到最大焦慮點發生的百分比----------------------------------------------------------------- 72
圖4-2 精熟組在經歷高覺醒程度時,經驗到最大焦慮點發生的百分比--------- 73
圖4-3 初學組第一次及第五次跳傘並經歷高覺醒程度時,經驗到最大興奮點發生的百分比----------------------------------------------------------------- 74
圖4-4 精熟組在經歷高覺醒程度時,經驗到最大興奮點發生的百分比-------- 75
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