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研究生:劉英助
研究生(外文):Ying-Chu Liu
論文名稱:人造膠結不良砂岩之模型承載試驗設備建立與淺基礎承載試驗
論文名稱(外文):Development of a foundation model for loading test using an artificial poorly cemented sandstone
指導教授:廖志中廖志中引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jyh-Jong Liao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:土木工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:191
中文關鍵詞:人造膠結不良砂岩軟岩模型承載試驗極限承載力
外文關鍵詞:artificial poorly cemented sandstonesoft rockfoundation model for loading testultimate bearing capacity
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  • 被引用被引用:9
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  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
本研究旨在建立一可供膠結不良砂岩進行室內模型承載試驗之試驗設備,製作基礎模型試體及進行淺基礎承載試驗。藉由模型基礎承載試驗結果以觀察其承載行為,檢討現有基礎承載力分析理論及岩石承載破壞行為,並建立膠結不良砂岩淺基礎的破壞機制及承載力判斷依據等。
經研究結果顯示,人造膠結不良砂岩之比重約2.66、乾單位重約2.02 g/cm3、孔隙率約24%、單壓強度介於3~5MPa、凝聚力 = 0.06MPa及有效內摩擦角 =37.27o;其性質已接近模擬之天然岩材。
本研究承載試驗結果顯示,承載試驗之承載應力及沉陷曲線可略分為三個階段,即初始跡段、降伏階段及破壞階段,此曲線的尖峰值即為基礎之極限承載力。另外,由初始階段、降伏階段至破壞階段,發現人造膠結不良砂岩由於應力擴張現象,使得破碎與發裂的球形範圍向外伸展,除了放射狀的裂縫之外,並同時有某種程度剪動效應存在,而試體形成主動區、被動區、主要剪裂面與完整區等不同型態區域。上述現象顯示膠結不良砂岩不同於一般硬岩或土壤的承載行為,而是兼具脆性與塑性之間的特性。
This thesis aims to investigate the engineering performance of shallow foundation in poorly cemented sandstone. In this thesis, an artificial weak rock was developed as the foundation material. The mechanical behavior of the artificial rock is analogous to the natural sandstone. A set of laboratory loading equipments for foundation model was assembled. The loading capacity of the loading facility is up to 400 tons. Then, four sets of model loading tests were performed.
Based on the results of the model loading tests, the loading stress v.s. settlement curves can be divided into three parts, i.e., the incipient stage, the yielding stage, and the fracture stage. The curve of the initial stage is approximately linear. It reflects the model material is still elastic. At the yielding stage, the micro-fractures are induced and model material behavior becomes inelastic. The deformation rate increases at the fracture stage. Then, the bearing stress decreases with the increase of settlement.
Based on the observation of the failure modes of the foundation model, the failure foundation model can be divided into four particular zones, i.e., the active stress zone, the passive stress zone, the shear-crack zone, and undisturbed zone. The active stress zone locates beneath the footing and was induced by the stress concentration at the corner of the footing. The passive zone was formed by the lateral expansion of the active zone. The shear fractures increase with the increase of the loads. Then, a macro shear slip surface forms and extends to the surface. Since both the shear and tensile cracks were observed in the models, the loading behavior of model foundation of poorly cemented failure mode is little difference with those for hard rocks or soils. The existing solutions for estimating foundation bearing capacity for soils or hard rocks are not suitable for weak rocks.
摘 要 i
ABSTRACT ii
誌 謝 iv
目 錄 v
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 x
第一章 前言 1
1.1研究動機 1
1.2研究目的 2
1.3 研究內容與方法 2
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2.1軟弱岩石之概述 4
2.1.1軟岩的形成與定義 4
2.1.3台灣中北部軟弱砂岩簡介 12
2.2人造軟岩 18
2.2.1人造膠結不良砂岩模擬材料的條件 19
2.2.2人造膠結不良砂岩製作方法與成果 21
2.2.3模型相似律 34
2.3岩石基礎概述 35
2.3.1岩石基礎可能的破壞模式 35
2.4軟岩基礎承載力概述 38
2.4.1塑性平衡方法( Plasticity Methods ) 38
2.4.2初始破壞法( Incipient Failure Methods ) 59
2.4.3假定破壞機制方法( An Assumed Failure Mechanism ) 60
2.4.4數值分析方法( Numerical methods ) 63
2.5 相關承載實驗文獻選顧 65
第三章 研究方法 79
3.1 設備的建立 79
3.1.1 反力系統設備 79
3.1.2 加載量測設備 85
3.1.3 試驗箱設備 90
3.2 人造軟岩之製作方法 91
3.2.1 人造膠結不良砂岩材料的組成 91
3.2.2 人造膠結不良砂岩製作方法與流程 94
3.2.3 模型相似律檢核 99
3.3 淺基礎模型承載試驗方法 110
3.3.1 試驗儀器之架設 110
3.3.2 試驗方法與流程 112
第四章 試驗結果 116
4.1 人造膠結不良砂岩之基本性質 116
4.1.1 基本物性 116
4.1.2 基本力學性質 120
4.2 模型基礎承載試驗結果 138
4.2.1 基礎承載試驗 138
4.3 破壞機制探討 155
4.4 試驗結果與前人相關研究結果之比較 160
第五章 結論與建議 164
5.1 結論 164
5.2 建議 165
參考文獻 166
附錄A 人造膠結不良砂岩鑽心取樣試體單壓試驗之應力應變曲線與試體破壞照片 173
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