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研究生:賴璟亮
論文名稱:高鉛和共晶銲料之介面電遷移研究
論文名稱(外文):Occurrence of Electromigration at High-Pb/Eutectic Solder Interface
指導教授:陳智陳智引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chih Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:材料科學與工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:69
中文關鍵詞:電遷移複合銲料高鉛銲料
外文關鍵詞:electromigrationcomposite solderhigh-Pb solder
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本論文利用Si 特有之V 型凹槽,迴流共晶與高鉛兩種銲錫合金,來模擬複合式銲料之結構,並研究電流方向、通電溫度對電遷移效應的影響。
藉由此種方法,我們發現通電方向的不同,會有不同的電遷移現象。我們所使用的電流密度均固定為5.7×104A/cm2,如果電子流方向是由共晶流到高鉛的話,會比電子流由高鉛流到共晶更快損壞而形成斷路,且其破壞點均是發生在共晶銲料靠陰極端處。對溫度效應來說的話,在150°C的電遷移效應較室溫及80°C來的明顯且快速,會在約一天左右就產生巨大的孔洞而斷路。另外在150°C 下之主要擴散元素為鉛而在室溫及80°C 之下則為錫。
比較特別的是在150°C之下不管有無通電,在高鉛及銅的介面處均會有一約幾micron的小細縫產生,推測應是高鉛與銅之熱膨脹係數差異所造成,但是並不嚴重到影響其電性。

The electromigration behavior in high-Pb/eutectic composite solder lines were studied in this experiment. Using Si V-grooves, we simulated the composite solder structure by reflowing the two solders into it. Electromigration effect was studued as a function of temperature, and stressing direction.
Various of electromigration damage was observed when current direction or stressing temperature changed. If the electron flux was passed from the eutectic solder side to the high-Pb solder side, hillocks formed at the eutectic/high-Pb solder interface and the voids appeared at the cathode side. When the electron flux was passed from the high-Pb to the eutectic solder side, the hillock accumulated at the anode side near the Cu/eutectic solder interface, and voids were formed at the cathode side both at room temperature and 150°C.
We observed a trench along Cu/high-Pb interface whether stressing or not at 150°C. The depth is about several microns. But, the trench is not found at Cu/eutectic solder interface; it may due to the eutectic solder is more ductile than high-Pb solder.

Contents
Chapter1 Introduction 3
Chapter2 Experimental Procedures 18
2.1 Fabrication of Silicon V-groove 18
2.2 Sample Preparation 20
2.3 Testing Assembly 23
2.4 Characterization Techniques 25
Chapter3 Electromigration Effect in Composite Solder Line 26
3.1 Current Stressing in Room Temperature 26
3.1.1 Stressing at 5.7 x 104 A/cm2 from High-Pb to Eutectic Solder 26
3.1.2 Stressing at 5.7 x 104 A/cm2 from Eutectic to High-Pb Solder 28
3.2 Current Stressing in 150°C 31
3.2.1 Stressing at 5.7 x 104 A/cm2 from High-Pb to Eutectic Solder 31
3.2.2 Stressing at 5.7 x 104 A/cm2 from Eutectic to High-Pb Solder 33
3.3 Heat Treating in 150°C without Current Stressing 35
3.3.1 Morphology 35
3.3.2 Redistribution of Pb Concentration 36
3.4 Current Stressing in 80°C 37
Chapter4 Conclusions 58
Reference 60

Reference
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[2]A. S. Zuruzi, C.-h. Chiu, W. T. Chen, S.K.Lahiri, and K. N. Tu, “Interdiffusion of high-Sn/high-Pb (SnPb) solders in low-temperature flip chip joints during reflow,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75,23,3635-3637(1999)
[3]H. K. Kim, K.N.Tu, and P.A.Totta,”Ripening-assisted asymmetric spalling of Cu-Sn compound speroids in solder joints on Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68,16,2204-2205.
[4]G.Z. Pan, Ann A. Liu, H.K. Kim, and K.N.Tu,’Microstructure of phased-in Cr-Cu/Cu/Au bump-limiting metallization and its soldering behavior with high Pb content and eutectic PbSn solders,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71,20,2946-2948.
[5]John H. Lau, and Yi-Hsin Pao,”Solder joint Reliability of BGA, CSP, Flip Chip, and Fine Pitch SMT Assemblies,”163,1997
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[10] International Technology Roadmap For Semiconducter 1999.
[11]C. Y.Liu, C. Chin, C.N.Liao and K.N.Tu, “Microstructrue-electromigration in a Thin Strip of Eutectic SnPb Solder Stressed between Cu Electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75,1,58-60(1999)
[12]Q. T. Huynh, C. Y. Liu, Chih Chen and K.N.Tu, “Electromigration in Eutectic PbSn Solder Line,” J. Apply. Phys.89,4332-4335 (2001)
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[14]Scott Brandenburg and Shing Yeh,”Electromigration Studies Of Flip Chip Bump Solder Joints,”

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