跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(54.225.48.56) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/01/19 22:37
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:侯智元
研究生(外文):Chih-Yuan Hou
論文名稱:高亮度發光二極體晶圓接合製程之研究
論文名稱(外文):Wafer Bonding Process for High Brightness LEDs
指導教授:吳耀銓
指導教授(外文):Yewchung Sermon Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:材料科學與工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:76
中文關鍵詞:晶圓接合高亮度發光二極體氧化銦錫砷化鎵磷化銦鎵
外文關鍵詞:wafer bondinghigh brightness LEDsIndium-Tin-OxideGaAsInGaP
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:1004
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:289
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
高亮度發光二極體晶圓接合製程之研究
研究生:侯智元 指導教授:吳耀銓 博士
國立交通大學材料科學與工程研究所
摘 要
在本篇論文中,將探討磷化鋁鎵銦(AlGaInP)四元合金發光二極體(Light Emitting Diode; LED)與透明基板之晶圓接合(Wafer Bonding)接合介面性質的研究。我們選擇了氧化銦錫薄膜(ITO)來作為晶圓接合的中間媒介層。氧化銦錫薄膜(ITO)是一種透明且具有導電性薄膜,為氧化銦(In2O3)和氧化錫(SnO2)的混合物,(In2O3:SnO2 =90%:10% 重量百分比),一般而言氧化銦錫薄膜(ITO)在膜厚2800A°下的電阻率約為2×10-4 W cm(金屬為 ∼ 10-6 Wcm),可見光穿透率約為90%。
本實驗是以電子束蒸鍍法將氧化銦錫薄膜(ITO)鍍在N型砷化鎵(GaAS)基板上。另外將另一片N型砷化鎵(GaAs)基板以金屬有機氣相沈積(MOCVD)的方式成長上N型磷化銦鎵(InGaP)的磊晶膜。在經過晶片清洗後,兩片對接,在保護氣氛或真空下升溫進行高溫接合的工作,接合的溫度大約為500∼600℃,加熱時間為40分鐘待降溫之後將試片取出做分析。首先進行接合界面觀察,界面觀察是用光學顯微鏡配合CCD攝影機以擷取接面的紅外線影像,可以觀察不同的溫度下已經接合及未接合面的比例各為多少,並配合掃瞄式電子顯微鏡(SEM)影像觀察接合截面,來觀察細部接合界面的完整性。電性分析,試片的電流-電壓(I-V)特性,可以瞭解接面接合的好壞。不同的接合參數,和不同的晶圓清洗方法,都會有不同的結果。此外,也將證明氧化銦錫薄膜(ITO),應用於透明基板發光二極體之晶圓接合的可行性。
Wafer Bonding Process for High Brightness LEDs
Student: Chih-Yuan Hou Advisor: Yewchung Sermon Wu
Department of Material Science and Engineering
National Chiao Tung University
Abstract
The (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P /GaP transparent substrate (TS) light emitting diode (LED) was fabricated by wafer bonding technique. In this study, used indium-tin-oxide (ITO) ( In2O3: SnO2 = 90 wt%: 10 wt% ) thin film as an intermediate layer to do indirect wafer bonding. The Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) thin film(~2800Å) exhibit high transmission in the visible region(about 90%), high electrical conductivity(2×10-4 W cm) .
In this experiment, bonded n-InGaP/ITO to investigate the bonded interface, the indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film was deposited on n-GaAs substrate by electron-beam evaporation, the InGaP was also grown on n-GaAs substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD).The pair of n-InGaP/ITO, bonded in Ar ambient or vacuum at 550 and 600℃ for 40 minutes, the bonded interface have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and IR transmission optical microscopy system. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics have demonstrated to be result of different bonding temperature, ambient and different wafer clean method. In addition, it will demonstrate the feasibility of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) used as an intermediate layer applying to wafer bonded transparent substrate light emitting diode.
中文摘要………………………………………………………………..Ⅰ
Abstract…………………………………………………………………Ⅱ
誌謝……………………………………………………………………..Ⅲ
Contents…………………………………………………………………Ⅳ
List of Tables ……………………………………………………….Ⅵ
List of Figures……………………………………………………….Ⅶ
Chapter 1 Introduction
1-1 AlGaInP Quaternary Alloy Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)…………………………………………………....................1
1-2 What is Wafer Bonding?………………………………...5
1-3 Characteristic Of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)………….6
Chapter 2 Experimental Procedure
2-1 Sample Preparation………………………………….9
2-2 Experimental Tools…………………………………11
2-3 Wafer Bonding Process…………………………….15
2-4 Morphology of the Bonding Interface
2-4-1 Artificial Hole………………………………..16
2-4-2 Snowflakes……………..……………………….21
2-5 Experimental Analysis Apparatus
2-5-1 IR Transmission Optical Microscopy System……….............................................24
2-5-2 Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)
2-5-2.1 Introduction……………………………….27
2-5-2.2 Principle of the Auger Process……….29
2-5-2.3 Thin Film Analysis Using Depth Profiling................................................30
2-5-3 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)……….32
Chapter 3 Results and Discussion
3-1 IR Transmission Image
3-1-1 Artificial Hole…………………………….....33
3-1-2 Growth of the “Snowflakes”…………………34
3-1-3 Effects of Bonding Temperature, Different Surface Treatment, Different Bonding ambient……………….37
3-2 Current-Voltage (I-V) Characteristics Across the n-InGaP/ITO Bonding Interface……………………..............45
3-3 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Image………..…...49
3-4 Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) Depth profile Analysis……………………………………………….............61
3-5 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Image………..67
3-6 Mechanical Strength Test……………………………..69
Chapter 4 Conclusion………………………………………….…..71
Reference……………………………………………………………..73
【1】 Sugawara H, Itaya K, Hatakoshi G. “Hybrid-type InGaAlP/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors for InGaAlP light-emitting diodes.” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Part 1-Regular Papers Short Notes & Review Papers, vol.33, no.11, Nov. 1994, pp.6195-8
【2】 Saint-Cricq B, Rudra A, Ganiere JD, Ilegems M. “High-reflectance GaInP/GaAs distributed Bragg reflector.” Electronics Letters, vol.29, no.21, 14 Oct. 1993, pp.1854-5
【3】 Vanderwater DA, Tan I-H, Hofler GE, Defevere DC, Kish FA. “High-brightnessAlGaInP light emitting diodes.” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol.85, no.11, Nov. 1997, pp.1752-64.
【4】 High Brightness Light Emitting Diodes, semiconductor and semimetals volume 48, G.B. Stringfellow, M. George Craford, New York: Academic 1997
【5】 Kish FA, Vanderwater DA, Peanasky MJ, Ludowise MJ, Hummel SG, Rosner SJ. “Low-resistance ohmic conduction across compound semiconductor wafer-bonded interfaces.” Applied Physics Letters, vol.67, no.14, 2 Oct. 1995, pp.2060-2
【6】 Vanderwater DA, Kish FA, Peansky MJ, Rosner SJ. “Electrical conduction through compound semiconductor wafer bonded interfaces.” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol.174, no.1-4, April 1997, pp.213-19.
【7】 Mizuhashi M. “Electrical properties of post-oxidized In/sub 2/O/sub 3/:Sn films.” Thin Solid Films, vol.76, no.2, 6 Feb. 1981, pp.97-105
【8】 Zhu Z-H, Ejeckam FE, Qian Y, Jizhi Zhang, Zhenjun Zhang, Christenson GL, Lo YH. “Wafer bonding technology and its applications in optoelectronic devices and materials.” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol.3, no.3, June 1997, pp.927-36
【9】 Barth PW. “Silicon fusion bonding for fabrication of sensors, actuators and microstructures.” Sensors & Actuators A-Physical, vol.A23, no.1-3, April 1990, pp.919-26
【10】 T.Y. Tan and U. Gösele. “Twist wafer bonded “fixed-film” versus “compliant” substrates: correlated misfit dislocation generation and contaminate gettering.” Applied physics A Material Science & Processing, vol.64, 1997, pp631-633
【11】 Kulkami AK, Lim T, Khan M, Schulz KH. “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates by rf sputtering.” AIP for American Vacuum Soc. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A-Vacuum Surfaces & Films, vol.16, no.3, May-June 1998, pp.1636-40
【12】Wen-Fa Wu, Bi-Shiou Chiou. “Properties of radio-frequency magnetron sputtered ITO films without in-situ substrate heating and post-deposition annealing.” Thin Solid Films, vol.247, no.2, 15 July 1994, pp.201-7
【13】Kobayashi H, Ishida T, Nakamura K, Nakato Y, Tsubomura H. “Properties of indium tin oxide films prepared by the electron beam evaporation method in relation to characteristics of indium tin oxide/silicon oxide/silicon junction solar cells.” Journal of Applied Physics, vol.72, no.11, 1 Dec. 1992, pp.5288-93
【14】Kim H, Gilmore CM, Pique A, Horwitz JS, Mattoussi H, Murata H, Kafafi ZH, Chrisey DB. “Electrical, optical, and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices.” Journal of Applied Physics, vol.86, no.11, 1 Dec. 1999, pp.6451-61
【15】Kim JS, Friend RH, Cacialli F. “Surface energy and polarity of treated indium-tin-oxide anodes for polymer light-emitting diodes studied by contact-angle measurements.” Journal of Applied Physics, vol.86, no.5, 1 Sept. 1999, pp.2774-8
【16】Morgan DV, Al-Ofi IM, Allyu YH. “Indium tin oxide spreading layers for AlGaInP visible LEDs.” Semiconductor Science & Technology, vol.15, no.1, Jan. 2000, pp.67-72
【17】Bhagwat S, Howson RP. “Use of the magnetron-sputtering technique for the control of the properties of indium tin oxide thin films.” Surface & Coatings Technology, vol.111, no.2-3, 29 Jan. 1999, pp.163-71
【18】Morgan DV, Aliyu YH, Bunce RW, Salehi A. “Annealing effects on opto-electronic properties of sputtered and thermally evaporated indium-tin-oxide films.” Thin Solid Films, vol.312, no.1-2, 14 Jan. 1998, pp.268-72
【19】Krokoszinski H-J, Oesterlein R. “Post-deposition annealing effects in electron-beam-evaporated indium tin oxide thin films.” Thin Solid Films, vol.187, no.1, 15 May 1990, pp.179-86
【20】Maruyama T, Fukui K. “Indium tin oxide thin films prepared by chemical vapour deposition.” Thin Solid Films, vol.203, no.2, 30 Aug. 1991, pp.297-302
【21】H. Kim, J. S. Horwitz, G. Kushto, “ Effect of film thickness on the properties of indium tin oxide thin films” Journal of Applied Physics, vol.88, no.10, 15 Nov. 2000, pp6021-25
【22】Ma, J.; Li, S.-Y.; Zhao, J.-Q.; Ma, H.-L. “Preparation and properties of indium tin oxide films deposited on polyester substrates by reactive evaporation” Thin Solid Films, vol.307, no.1-2, 10 Oct. 1997, pp.200-02
【23】Alam MJ, Cameron DC. “Optical and electrical properties of transparent conductive ITO thin films deposited by sol-gel process.” Thin Solid Films, vol.377-378, 1 Dec. 2000, pp.455-9
【24】Kim, Seon-Soon; Choi, Se-Young; Park, Chan-Gyung; Jin, Hyeon-Woo, “Transparent conductive ITO thin films through the sol-gel process using metal salts” Thin Solid Film, vol.347, pp155-160
【25】Gupta L, Mansingh A, Srivastava PK. “Band gap narrowing and the band structure of tin-doped indium oxide films.” Thin Solid Films, vol.176, no.1, Sept. 1989, pp.33-44
【26】Sheu JK, Su YK, Chang SJ, Jou MJ, Liu CC, Chi GC. “Investigation of wafer-bonded (Al/sub x/Ga/sub 1-x/)/sub 0.5/In/sub 0.5/P/GaP light-emitting diodes.” IEE Proceedings Optoelectronics, vol.145, no.4, Aug. 1998, pp.248-52
【27】Henry J, Livingstone J. “ITO film analyses by FTIR.” Infrared Physics & Technology, vol.36, no.4, June 1995, pp.779-84
【28】K. Zhang, A. R. Forouhi, I. Bloomer. “Accurate and rapid determination of thickness, n and k spectra, and resistivity of indium-tin-oxide films.” Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A-Vacuum Surfaces & Films, vol.17, no.4, Jul-Aug 1999, pp.1843-47
【29】Ching-Ting Lee, Ching-Hung Fu, Chang-Da Tsai, Wei Lin. “Performance characterization of InGaP Schottky contact with ITO transparent electrodes.” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol.27, no.9, Sept. 1998, pp.1017-21
【30】Y. H. Lo, R. Bhat, D. M. Hwang, M. A. Koza, T. P. Lee. “Bonding by atomic rearrangement of InP/InGaAsP 1.5 μm wavelength lasers on GaAs substrates” Applied Physics Letter, vol.58, no.18, 6 May 1991, pp1961-63
【31】Zhu Z-H, Ejeckam FE, Qian Y, Jizhi Zhang, Zhenjun Zhang, Christenson GL, Lo YH. “Wafer bonding technology and its applications in optoelectronic devices and materials.” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol.3, no.3, June 1997, pp.927-36
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
1. 吳祥堅(1997):<國家公園與自然生態保育>。《環境教育季刊》,34期,77-82。
2. 吳祥堅(1997):<國家公園與自然生態保育>。《環境教育季刊》,34期,77-82。
3. 吳清基、蘇進棻(2001):<新世紀的教育展望>。《研習資訊》,18(2),1-5。
4. 吳清基、蘇進棻(2001):<新世紀的教育展望>。《研習資訊》,18(2),1-5。
5. 朱敬先(1983):<角色扮演教學模式之理論與應用>。《國立政治大學教育與心理研究學報》,6期,1-18。
6. 朱敬先(1983):<角色扮演教學模式之理論與應用>。《國立政治大學教育與心理研究學報》,6期,1-18。
7. 成虹飛(1999):<報告書寫的困境與可能性:寫給愛好質化研究的朋友>。《新竹師院學報》,12期,27-42。
8. 成虹飛(1999):<報告書寫的困境與可能性:寫給愛好質化研究的朋友>。《新竹師院學報》,12期,27-42。
9. 田芳華(1998):<自傳記憶與事件:生命史調查之應用與前瞻>。《調查研究》,6期,5-38。
10. 田芳華(1998):<自傳記憶與事件:生命史調查之應用與前瞻>。《調查研究》,6期,5-38。
11. 王鑫、Steve, S、李淑媛(1995):<發展教師環境教育哲學之研究>。《環境教育季刊》,26期,1-16。
12. 王鑫、Steve, S、李淑媛(1995):<發展教師環境教育哲學之研究>。《環境教育季刊》,26期,1-16。
13. 王鑫(1999):<鄉土教學概論>。《環境教育季刊》,40期,2-6。
14. 王鑫(1999):<鄉土教學概論>。《環境教育季刊》,40期,2-6。
15. 王鑫(1989):<環境教育及戶外教育活動設計舉例>。《環境教育季刊》,2期,63-68。