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研究生:許佳雯
研究生(外文):Jia-wen Hsu
論文名稱:針對高齡使用者之WWW介面設計
論文名稱(外文):Designing WWW User Interface for Older Adults
指導教授:饒培倫饒培倫引用關係楊台恩
指導教授(外文):Pei-luen RauTe-yan Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:傳播所
學門:傳播學門
學類:一般大眾傳播學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:162
中文關鍵詞:高齡者網頁設計設計準則使用性全球資訊網使用者介面老化
外文關鍵詞:Older AdultsWeb DesignGuidelinesUsabilityWWWUser InterfaceAging
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本研究的目的是從高齡者感官、生理及認知上的衰退,探討其使用輸出入機制、網頁介面設計元素的WWW瀏覽表現及態度,以提昇高齡者的人機表現。研究者發展出一套概念模型,用以表達感官、生理及認知上的衰退,輸出入機制、網頁介面設計元素,使用性問題之間的關聯。這些元素發展出本研究的研究架構、研究假設和實驗系統之設計。
實驗前測首先驗證文獻探討所提的設計準則,三位年輕使用性專家以啟發式評估法,及八位實際高齡使用者使用放聲思考法,針對兩家知名中文新聞網站首頁進行評估,結果發現關於先前文獻所探討的是明確且肯定的。因此網頁設計者可依循本研究所提出的設計準則進而改善對高齡者的網頁使用性。
實驗一的目的旨在檢驗直接與非直接輸入機制對高齡使用者瀏覽網頁的影響。該實驗採用單因子設計,依變項為使用者之表現時間、學習效果、錯誤率、滿意度、迷失程度及心智負荷程度。實驗一參與者招募50歲以上高齡自願者共計24名,隨機分派至觸控組、語音組與滑鼠組,實驗過程中以電腦紀錄參與者在瀏覽任務上的表現及紙筆問卷測量。
實驗二的目的旨在檢驗直接與非直接輸入機制對高齡使用者關鍵字搜尋網頁的影響。該實驗採用單因子設計,依變項為使用者之表現時間、學習效果、錯誤率、滿意度、迷失程度及心智負荷程度。參與者同實驗一共計23名,隨機分派至觸控+手寫組、語音組與滑鼠+鍵盤組,實驗過程中以電腦紀錄參與者在瀏覽任務上的表現及紙筆問卷測量。
實驗三的目的旨在比較有無聽覺輔助輸出機制對高齡者瀏覽網頁的影響。該實驗採用重複測量設計及多階因子實驗設計,依變項為使用者之表現時間、記憶力、理解力、滿意度及迷失程度。實驗的參與者招募50歲以上高齡自願者共計16名,參與者隨機分配至有無語音文字兩組,每一參與者須進行有無語音選單兩次實驗。實驗過程中以電腦紀錄參與者在瀏覽任務上的表現,離線紙筆之記憶力、理解力測驗和態度問卷。
實驗一結果顯示,輸入機制對瀏覽表現的「表現時間」、「學習效果」與心智負荷面向之「挫折程度」有顯著影響。整體而言,直接操控輸入機制對於高齡者在表現時間上的確優於非直接操控輸入機制。
實驗二結果顯示,以關鍵字搜尋任務而言,利用直接操控輸入機制(手寫辨識機制或是語音)輸入關鍵字,都比利用非直接操控輸入機制(鍵盤)的表現時間佳。
實驗三結果顯示,有無提供綜合語音文字的聽覺輔助輸出機制對高齡使用者的表現時間有顯著影響,提供綜合語音文字會比未提供綜合語音文字來得較無效率。
整體而言,提供觸控或是語音等直接操控輸入機制的情況下,高齡參與者瀏覽網頁的表現優於使用滑鼠的非直接操控輸入機制。此外,提供提供觸控+手寫或是語音等直接操控輸入機制的情況下,高齡參與者使用搜尋引擎搜尋網頁的表現優於使用滑鼠+鍵盤的非直接操控輸入機制,因此,提供多樣化的輸入機制可以幫助高齡者減少學習滑鼠及鍵盤輸入的時間,而能更有效率地使用WWW找到想要的資訊。
The purpose of this study is to investigate the decreases in the physical, sensorial, and cognitive ways for older adults, and to check whether the I/O mechanism and the elements of web interface design would influence their performance and attitude toward the browsing of WWW. We develop a conceptual model to express the decreases in the physical, sensorial, and cognitive ways for older adults and to show the relationship of the I/O mechanism, the elements of web design and usability problems. Based on these elements, we develop the structure, hypotheses, and experiments of this study.
We firstly examine guidelines from literature review. Specific design improvements and general design guidelines for older WWW users are discussed. Three young usability experts have evaluated the homepages of the two well-known Chinese news websites by using the methods of heuristic evaluation and eight-older-user think aloud. The general agreement with the literature lends support to the notion that our findings are firm and general. We believe that Web page designers can improve the usability of Chinese web pages by applying the guidelines proposed in this study.
The purpose of Experiment I is to compare the influences that the direct and indirect input mechanisms may have on older participants when they use either to browse WWW. We adopt one factor design. The dependences are performance time, errors, satisfaction, lost, and mental workload. Twenty-four voluntary participants, who are over 50 years old, are recruited and dispatched randomly to one of the three groups, including the touch, voice, and mouse groups. In the process, the data were automatically recorded by the computer and questionnaires.
The purpose of Experiment II is to compare the influences that the direct and indirect input mechanisms have on older participants when they use either to search WWW. One factor design is adopted. The dependences are performance time, errors, satisfaction, lost, and mental workload. Twenty-three participants are recruited and dispatched randomly to one of the three groups, including touch & written, voice, and mouse & keyboard groups. In the process the data were automatically recorded by the computer and questionnaires.
The purpose of Experiment III is to compare the influence that the audio assignment output mechanism may have on older participants when they use it or don’t use it to browse WWW. Repeated-measures design and nested-factorial experiments are adopted. The dependences are performance time, memory, comprehension, satisfaction, and lost. Sixteen participants are recruited and dispatched randomly to either of the video and audio groups. In the process, the data were automatically recorded by the computer and questionnaires.
The results of three experiments can be summarized into the following findings:
n Direct input device significantly outperformed indirect input device on “performance time”, “learning effect”, and “frustrated level” in browsing task.
n Direct input device significantly outperformed indirect input device on “performance time”, “learning effect” in keyword searching task.
n Audio output device significantly outperformed input device on “performance time”, “learning effect” in keyword searching task.
The results indicate that, in general, direct input devices are useful for older adults in browsing and keyword searching in WWW system.
中文摘要……………………………………………………………………………1
英文摘要……………………………………………………………………………3
誌謝…………………………………………………………………………………5
目錄…………………………………………………………………………………6
表目錄………………………………………………………………………………9
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………………10
第一章、緒論………………………………………………………………………11
1.1研究動機………………………………………………………………..…11
1.2研究目的…………………………………………………………………..12
第二章、文獻探討…………………………………………………………………15
2.1高齡者特質………………………………………………………………..15
2.1.1高齡者的定義………………………………………………….………..15
2.1.2高齡使用者網路與電腦使用現況………………………………...……16
2.2高齡者的生理與心理智力變化…………………………………………..19
2.2.1感官的退化…………………………………………………….…..20
2.2.2心理智力的變化………………………………………………...…25
2.3年齡與介面設計的探討…………………………………………………..29
2.3.1高齡者視力與HCI的設計………………………………………..30
2.3.2高齡者口語和聽力的HCI設計…………………………………..31
2.3.3高齡者心理性肌肉運動能力與HCI設計………………………..34
2.3.4高齡者的注意力和自動化反應的HCI介面設計………………..35
2.3.5高齡者記憶力和學習與HCI設計………………………………..36
2.3.6高齡者智力和HCI設計…………………………………………..38
2.4設計準則…………………………………………………………………..36
2.4.1輸入機制和輸出機制………………………………………...……39
2.4.2網頁介面設計形式…………………………………………………41
第三章、概念模型與研究假設……………………….……….……………………50
3.1概念模型………………………………………………...…………………50
3.1.1高齡使用者的能力與限制…………………………………………50
3.1.2輸入/輸出機制……………………………………………...………52
3.1.3網頁介面形式………………………………………………………53
3.1.4主要使用性問題……………………………………………………54
3.2實驗前測……………………………………………………………...……55
3.2.1啟發式評估法………………………………………………………56
3.2.2放聲思考法…………………………………………………………58
3.2.3設計建議總結………………………………………………………62
3.3研究假設……………………………………………………...……………64
3.3.1研究假設一…………………………………………………………65
3.3.2研究假設二…………………………………………………………67
3.3.3研究假設三…………………………………………………………68
第四章、研究方法………………………………………………………….………70
4.1實驗一…………………………………………………………...…………70
4.1.1任務…………………………………………………………………70
4.1.2參與者………………………………………………………………71
4.1.3依變數………………………………………………………………74
4.1.4自變數………………………………………………………………75
4.1.5器材…………………………………………………………………75
4.1.6實驗設計……………………………………………...….…………75
4.1.7實驗流程……………………………………………………………76
4.2實驗二……………………………………………………………...………78
4.2.1任務…………………………………………………………………78
4.2.2參與者………………………………………………………………81
4.2.3依變數………………………………………………………………81
4.2.4自變數………………………………………………………………82
4.2.5器材…………………………………………………………………82
4.2.6實驗設計……………………………………………………………83
4.2.7實驗程序……………………………………………………………80
4.3實驗三………………………………………………………...……………86
4.3.1任務…………………………………………………………………86
4.3.2參與者………………………………………………………………86
4.3.3依變數………………………………………………………………90
4.3.4自變數………………………………………………………………91
4.3.5器材…………………………………………………………………91
4.3.6實驗設計……………………………………………………………91
4.3.7實驗流程……………………………………………………………93
第五章、研究結果與討論…………………………………………….……………95
5.1描述性統計……………………………………………………...…………95
5.1.1實驗一及實驗二參與者樣本特徵…………………………………95
5.1.2 實驗一描述性統計…………………………………...……………98
5.1.3實驗二描述性統計…………………………………………………99
5.1.4實驗三參與者樣本特徵…………………………….………..……100
5.1.5實驗三描述性統計…………………………………….…………..102
5.2測量信度………………………………………………...….…..…………103
5.2.1滿意度問卷的信度………………………………….……………..103
5.2.2迷失量表的信度……………………………………….…………..104
5.3實驗一………………………………………………………….……….…104
5.3.1檢驗假設一…………………………………………….………..…106
5.3.2實驗一相關性分析……………………………………….………..108
5.3.3實驗一共變數分析…………………………………...……………110
5.3.4討論假設一……………………………………………...…………110
5.4實驗二…………………………………………………………………..…112
5.4.1檢驗假設二…………………………………………...……………113
5.4.2實驗二相關性分析…………………………………...……………120
5.4.3實驗二共變數分析…………………………………………...……124
5.4.4.討論假設二…………………………………………...……………127
5.5實驗三………………………………………………………………..……129
5.5.1檢驗假設三…………………………………………...……………129
5.5.2實驗三相關性分析……………………………………...…………133
5.5.3 討論假設三………………………………………………..………136
5.6討論概念模型……………………………………………………..………137
5.6.1輸入機制部分……………………………………………..……….137
5.6.2輸出機制部分……………………………………………..……….138
5.6.3網頁介面形式……………………………………………..……….138
5.6.4使用性問題………………………………………………..……….139
第六章、結論與建議………………………………………………………………141
6..1結論………………………..……………………………………...…141
6.2具體建議………………………..……………………….……...……146
6.3研究限制與未來研究……………………..…………….…...………148
參考文獻…………………………..…………………………………………..……150
附錄
附錄A前測之實驗工具
附錄B實驗一之實驗工具
附錄C實驗二之實驗工具
附錄D實驗三之實驗工具
附錄E參與者原始資料
附錄F實驗結果
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