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研究生:王瑩玨
研究生(外文):Ying-chueh Wang
論文名稱:手持設備之行動遊歷輔助工具之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on Navigation Support Tools for Mobile Browsers on Handheld Devices
指導教授:饒培倫饒培倫引用關係楊台恩
指導教授(外文):Pei-luen RauTe-yan Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:傳播所
學門:傳播學門
學類:一般大眾傳播學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:109
中文關鍵詞:PDA手持式設備行動設備遊歷輔助工具歷程紀錄主選單總覽圖
外文關鍵詞:PDAHandheld DevicesMobile DevicesNavigation Support ToolsHistoryMain MenuOverview
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本研究之目的是探討在手持平台的超媒體系統中,遊歷輔助工具種類對使用者表現的影響。所討論的使用者表現分別為表現時間、步數、滿意度、以及迷失度四個面項。實驗的受測者為20-30歲未使用過PDA、並有兩年以上電腦經驗的大學生及研究生,共36名。受試者採隨機次第分配法,依遊歷輔助工具不同,分至四組不同的手持平台,分別是「無遊歷輔助工具」組、「主選單」組、「歷程紀錄」組、「主選單+歷程記錄」組。為了將執行各項任務的順序納入考量,每一組的9位受測者,再分成三種執行任務的順序,實驗採Double Latin Square 設計。
本研究主要的假設是:遊歷輔助工具種類會對使用者在表現時間、步數、滿意度、以及迷失度四個面向上產生顯著影響,研究結果歸納如下:就整體表現而言,「無遊歷輔助工具」組在四個面向上的表現最差;「主選單」組、「歷程紀錄」組、「主選單+歷程記錄」組在時間、步數、滿意度上無顯著差異,在迷失度上則是「主選單」、「主選單+歷程記錄」兩組無顯著差異,並優於「歷程紀錄」組;針對各項任務作時間與步數的分析,結果大致上與整體表現一致。不一致的部分為:作「小範圍搜尋瀏覽」時,四組無顯著差異;作「大範圍搜尋瀏覽」時,「主選單」、「主選單+歷程記錄」兩組無顯著差異且表現最好,「歷程紀錄」組次之,「無遊歷輔助工具」組表現最差。
總結研究結果,發現不論是「歷程紀錄」或是「主選單」,只要提供其中任何一種遊歷輔助工具,對使用者的使用表現都有顯著的幫助。若是比較兩種遊歷輔助工具,研究發現,使用者在提供「主選單」的手持式平台上的瀏覽表現,比在提供「歷程紀錄」的手持式平台上表現佳。
The purpose of this study is to find out whether the users’ performance would vary with the sorts of navigation support tools in the hypermedia system on handheld devices. The performance factors discussed here include the performance time, the steps, the satisfaction, and the lost degree. The subjects are 36 novices at PDA with more than 2-year experience of using computers, aged from 20-30, studying at colleges or graduate schools. The subjects are randomly dispatched to four groups that are equipped with different navigation support tools, including “non-navigation support tools,” “main menu,” “history,” and “main menu & history.” The sequence of operating is considered. Nine participants of each group are divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup has particular sequence to put the experiment into practice. And the design of the experiment follows the device of Double Latin Square.
The main assumption of the study is that navigation support tools have significant influence on the performance of users in the aspects of performance time, the steps, the satisfaction, and the lost degree. The results are concluded as follows. To see as a whole, the performance of the group without navigation support tools is inferior to those of all the other groups. On the other hand, among the other three groups of “main menu,” “history” and “main menu & history,” there is no remarkable difference at the aspects of the performance time, the steps, and the satisfaction. Meanwhile, as far as “the lost degree” is concerned, there is no obvious difference observed between the group with “main menu ” and the group with “main menu & history,” and the both groups perform better than the group of “history.” Investigating every individual task in the aspects of “the performance time” and “the steps”, the outcomes are coincident to the results of a whole. Nevertheless, there are diverse outcomes. The performances in small scale searching browsing are about the same for all groups. However, in large scale searching browsing, the group of “main menu ” and the group of “main menu & history” perform worse than the group of “history.” And the group without any navigation support tool performs worst.
To sum up, providing either “history” or “main menu” as a navigation support tool would be a great help to the performance of users while they are browsing, and users usually perform even better with “main menu” rather than with “history” on handheld devices.
目 錄
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景及動機 1
1.2 研究目的 2
第2章 文獻探討 4
2.1 介面設計 4
2.1.1 人機介面簡介 4
2.1.2 使用者介面分類 5
2.1.3 圖形使用者介面(GUI, Graphic User Interface) 6
2.1.3.1 視窗(Window) 7
2.1.3.2 圖像(icon) 7
2.1.3.3 選單(menu) 8
2.1.3.4 點選和指標(pointer) 8
2.1.4 介面的視覺設計 9
2.1.4.1 版面配置(Layout): 9
2.1.4.2 文字(Text) 10
2.1.4.3 色彩(Color) 11
2.2 超媒體(Hypermedia) 12
2.2.1 超媒體系統 12
2.2.2 超媒體的基本組成 14
2.2.2.1 節點(node) 14
2.2.2.2 鏈結(link) 14
2.2.3 超媒體遊歷 15
2.2.4 超媒體中的使用性問題 16
2.3 遊歷輔助工具(navigation support tool) 16
2.3.1 返回(backtrack) 17
2.3.2 歷程紀錄(History list) 18
2.3.3 總覽圖 (overview diagram) 20
2.3.4 書籤(Bookmark) 21
2.3.5 其他 22
2.3.6 情境資訊(Context Information) 24
2.3.6.1 空間情境(spatial context) 25
2.3.6.2 時間情境(temporal context) 25
2.3.6.3 時間情境與空間情境的比較 25
2.4 行動上網 26
2.4.1 行動上網的特性 27
2.4.1.1 終端設備 27
2.4.1.2 網路傳輸環境 29
2.4.1.3 使用者特性 29
2.4.2 個人數位助理(Personal Didital Assistant , PDA) 30
2.4.2.1 PDA的分類 31
2.4.2.2 PDA的優勢與劣勢 31
2.5 小螢幕與介面設計的探討 32
2.5.1 PDA的使用者特性 33
2.5.1.1 消費者導向(the consumer audience) 33
2.5.1.2 特定用途 (target domain) 33
2.5.2 PDA小螢幕的設計限制 35
2.5.2.1 短期記憶的限制 36
2.5.2.2 心智模型發展的限制 37
2.5.3 小螢幕相關研究Ⅰ-- 閱讀時間與理解度 38
2.5.3.1 閱讀的定義 38
2.5.3.2 螢幕的寬度與高度 38
2.5.4 小螢幕相關研究Ⅱ--超文本遊歷 39
2.5.4.1 螢幕大小 39
2.5.4.2 捲軸 39
2.5.4.3 資訊理解度 40
2.5.4.4 遊歷 40
2.5.4.5 系統使用度 41
2.5.4.6 個人化資訊路徑 41
2.5.5 小螢幕設計建議 41
2.5.5.1 簡單的圖像 42
2.5.5.2 直接近用策略 42
2.5.5.3 增加系統使用度 43
2.5.5.4 減少捲軸的使用 43
2.5.5.5 其他設計建議 43
第3章、概念模型與研究假設 46
3.1 概念模型 46
3.1.1 情境資訊(context information)--遊歷輔助工具 46
3.1.1.1 空間情境-- 主選單(menu) 47
3.1.1.2 時間情境-- 歷程紀錄(history) 48
3.1.2 任務類型 49
3.2 研究假設 50
第4章 研究方法 52
4.1 研究樣本 52
4.2 自變項 53
4.2.1 遊歷輔助工具 53
4.2.2 任務 53
4.3 依變項 56
4.4 背景資料 57
4.5 器材與實驗介面 57
4.5.1 器材 57
4.5.2 網頁架構: 58
4.6 實驗設計 62
4.7 實驗流程 64
第5章 研究結果與討論 65
5.1 背景資料統計 65
5.2 測量信度 67
5.2.1 滿意度問卷的信度 67
5.2.2 迷失量表的信度 68
5.2.3 變異數同質性及常態性檢定 68
5.3. 檢驗假設一 70
5.3.1 依變項分析 ─總時間 70
5.3.2 依變項分析 ─總步數 72
5.3.3 依變項分析 ─滿意度 72
5.3.4 依變項分析 ─迷失度 73
5.3.5 討論假設一 74
5.4 檢驗假設二及假設三 75
5.4.1 整體表現分析 75
5.4.2 個別任務分析 76
5.4.2.1 任務一 ─ 大範圍搜尋瀏覽 77
5.4.2.2 任務二 ─ 大範圍一般性瀏覽 79
5.4.2.3 任務三 ─ 小範圍搜尋瀏覽 80
5.4.2.4 任務四 ─ 小範圍一般性瀏覽 81
5.4.2.5 任務五 ─ 中範圍搜尋瀏覽 83
5.4.3 討論假設二及假設三 86
5.5 討論 88
5.5.1 綜合討論 88
5.5.2 兩種遊歷工具的比較 91
5.5.2.1 主選單與歷程紀錄的輔助性 91
5.5.2.2 大範圍的瀏覽 92
5.5.2.3 迷失度 93
5.5.2.4 空間情境 93
第6章 結論與建議 95
參考文獻 99
英文部分 99
中文部分 107
圖表目錄
表2.1 消費者設備用途分類及設計相關特徵 35
表4.1 任務類型列表 54
表4.2 任務問題設計 55
表4.3 網頁架構 59
表4.4 遊歷輔助工具分組 62
表4.5 實驗設計(n=36) 62
表5.1 參與者背景資料描述性統計 66
表5.2 參與者背景資料之差異顯著性考驗 67
表5.3 資料轉換一覽表(時間) 69
表5.4 資料轉換一覽表(步數) 69
表5.5 依變項整體表現變異數分析 71
表5.6 SNK均值差檢定- 總時間 71
表5.7 SNK均值差檢定-總步數 72
表5.8 SNK均值差檢定-滿意度 73
表5.9 SNK均值差檢定— 迷失度 74
表5.10 個別任務執行時間的變異數分析 76
表5.11 個別任務執行步數的變異數分析 77
表5.12 時間SNK均值差檢定 (任務一:大範圍搜尋瀏覽) 78
表5.13 步數SNK均值差檢定 (任務一:大範圍搜尋瀏覽) 78
表5.14 時間SNK均值差檢定 (任務二:大範圍一般性瀏覽) 79
表5.15 步數SNK均值差檢定 (任務二:大範圍一般性瀏覽) 80
表5.16 時間SNK均值差檢定 (任務四:小範圍一般性瀏覽) 81
表5.17 步數SNK均值差檢定 (任務四:小範圍一般性瀏覽) 82
表5.18 時間SNK均值差檢定 (任務五:中範圍搜尋瀏覽) 83
表5.19 步數SNK均值差檢定 (任務五:中範圍搜尋瀏覽) 84
表5.20 系統使用程度變異數分析 85
表5.21 分析結果整理 86
圖2-1 階層式與非階層式超文本之結構比較 15
圖3-1 研究概念模型 45
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中文部分
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許永生(2000):《在資訊家電時代對台灣PDA產業的發展機會研究》。國立政治大學經營管理研究所碩士論文。
郭彥谷(2000):《PDA介面資訊傳達與工作效能的關係》。國立交通大學傳播研究所碩士論文。
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劉英茂(1992):《基本心理歷程》。台北:大洋出版社。
蘇溢芳(2000):《使用者導向之網頁資訊編輯與整合系統》。國立成功大學資訊工程研究所碩士論文。
謝清鈿(2000):《橫跨異質瀏覽介面的智慧型網頁架構》。靜宜大學資訊管理研究所碩士論文。
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