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研究生:張鴻駿
研究生(外文):Hung-Chun Chang
論文名稱:一動態網路位址轉換之方法以溝通位於私有網路中之機器
論文名稱(外文):A Dynamic-configurable NAT Approach to Communicate with Hosts inside a Private Network
指導教授:曾建超曾建超引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chien-Chao Tseng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:資訊工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:43
中文關鍵詞:網路位址轉換雙向網路位址轉換群播往內部之連線私有網路私有IP
外文關鍵詞:NATbi-directional NATmulticastinbound sessionprivate networkprivate IP
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
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NAT是一個被廣泛應用於解決IPv4中IP位址不足問題的方法。透過NAT,我們便能利用私有的IP位址以節省IPv4之位址空間。然而,傳統的NAT只支援往外部的連線。也就是說,在公用網路中之機器並不能建立往內部之連線。因此,公用網路中之機器並不能和私有網路中之機器溝通,除非已有相關的固定設定或往相關的外部之連線。
關於上述之問題目前雖已有數個解決方法被提出,但所有的方法都有一些缺點或副作用。因此,在本論文中我們提出了一個稱為DCNAT的方法來解決此問題。此方法利用了一個稱為NAT Agent的外加模組,使得往內部之連線能夠利用一個註冊的程序而動態建立。換句話說,在公用網路中之機器在和NAT Agent註冊之後,將能和私有網路中之機器溝通。
DCNAT能夠更進一步的應用到群播服務的環境中。。透過一個支援群播服務之DCNAT (MDCNAT),網際網路中之服務提供者(ICP)可以利用一個proxy來將一份資料送至許多機器。此proxy會替ICP向支援MDCNAT之NAT 路由器註冊訂閱者之資訊,並將群播之資料送至這些路由器。在收到資料之後,各路由器上之Multicast Agent將會利用一轉送機制或一子網路群播機制將此資料送至位於私有網路中之訂閱者。
NAT is a widely deployed solution to IP address depletion problem in IPv4. With NAT, we can use private IP addresses to save the IPv4 address space. However, traditional NAT would only allow outbound sessions (from a private network to the public network), i.e. a host in the public network can’t establish an inbound session toward a private network. Therefore, a host in the public network can’t communicate with a host in a private network except that the latter has a static address binding or has established an outbound session with the former.
There have been several solutions to the above problem, but all of them suffer from some drawbacks or side effects. Therefore, in this thesis we present an approach named Dynamic-configurable NAT (DCNAT) to resolving the inbound session problem. In the approach, with an add-on NAT Agent on the NAT router, an inbound session can be dynamically configured through a registration procedure. That is, hosts in the public network (e.g. the Internet) can communicate with hosts within a private network after registering an inbound session with the NAT Agent.
The presented DCNAT can be further enhanced to support applications with multicast data delivery. With the multicast-capable DCNAT (MDCNAT), an ICP (Internet Content Provider) can simply provide the subscription information of the subscribers and a copy of data to an MDCNAT proxy. The proxy can register, on behalf of all subscribers, with all MDCNAT-enabled NAT routers, and then sends a copy of data to each MDCNAT-enabled NAT routers involved. On receiving the data, a Multicast Agent in each designated NAT router will send the data to the subscribers within the private network via a multiple-unicast forwarding procedure or a subnet multicast.
Contents
Abstract in Chinese i
Abstract in English ii
Acknowledgements iii
Table of Contents iv
List of Figures vi
List of Tables vii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Synopsis 2
Chapter 2 Background Materials 3
2.1 IP Address Depletion Problem 3
2.2 NAT 3
2.3 Basic NAT 4
2.4 NAPT 5
2.4.1 NAT Table of NAPT 5
Chapter 3 Problem Definition 7
Chapter 4 Related Work 9
4.1 Bi-directional NAT 9
4.2 Expended NAT 10
4.3 Tunnel Approach 11
4.4 Summary 15
Chapter 5 Dynamic-configurable NAT (DCNAT) 16
5.1 Objectives 16
5.2 System Architecture 16
5.3 Protocol Sketch 17
5.4 Detail Design 18
5.4.1 Terminology 18
5.4.2 Data Structures 19
5.4.3 NAT Agent 20
5.4.4 Protocol Description 22
5.5 Summary 24
Chapter 6 Multicast Consideration 25
6.1 Motivation and Objectives 25
6.2 System Architecture 26
6.3 Protocol Stretch 26
6.4 Detail Design 27
6.5 Summary 32
Chapter 7 Implementation Issues 34
7.1 Implementation of DCNAT 34
7.1.1 System Architecture 34
7.1.2 Software Configuration 35
7.1.3 NAT Agent 36
7.1.4 Applications on Hosts 37
7.2 Implementation of MDCNAT 37
7.2.1 CPP 37
7.2.2 Multicast Agent 38
7.2.3 Subscribed Hosts 38
7.3 Summary 39
Chapter 8 Conclusion 40
8.1Conclusion 40
Reference 42
[Aboba99] B. Aboba and M. Beadles, “The Network Access Identifier,” RFC 2486, IETF Network Working Group, Jan 1999
[Deering89] S. Deering, “Host Extensions for IP Multicasting,” RFC 1112, IETF Network Working Group, Aug 1989
[Deering98] S. Deering and R. Hinden, “Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification,” RFC 2460, IETF Network Working Group, Dec 1998
[DHCPDNS] Mike Stella, “Dynamic DNS update from DHCP, version 1.0.3” http://www.thismetalsky.org/magic/projects/dhcp_dns.html
[Dnsmasq] Simon Kelley, “Dnsmasq”, http://thekelleys.org.uk/dnsmasq/doc.html
[Droms97] R. Droms, “Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol,” RFC 2131, IETF Network Working Group, Mar 1997
[Egevang94] K. Egevang and P. Francis, “The IP Network Address Translator (NAT),” RFC 1631, IETF Network Working Group, May 1994.
[Falstrom00] P. Falstrom, “E.164 number and DNS,” RFC 2916, IETF Network Working Group, Sep 2000
[Herbert01] D.L. Herbert, S.S. Decgan, C. Beane, “Application of Network Address Translation in a Local Area Network,” Southeastern Symposium on System Theory, Proceedings of the 33rd, 2001
[Holdrege01] M. Holdrege and P. Srisuresh, “Protocol Complications with the IP Network Address Translator,” RFC 3027, IETF Network Working Group, Jan 2001
[Iptables] “The netfilter/iptables project,” http://www.iptables.org/
[ISCBIND] Internet Software Consortium (ISC), “Berkley Internet Name Domain (BIND),” http://www.isc.org/products/BIND/
[Kriens01] Peter Kriens, “Method and System for Communication to A Host within A Private Network,” U.S. Patent Application Publication 2001/0006523, Jul. 2001
[Lee99] Eun-Sang Lee, Hyun-Seok Chae, Byoung-Soo Park and Myung-Ryul Choi, ”An expanded NAT with Server Connection Ability,” Proceedings of the IEEE Region 10 Conference , Volume: 2 , 1999
[Mockapetris87a] P. Mockapetris, “Domain Names ─ Concepts and Facilities,” RFC 1034, IETF Network Working Group, Nov 1987
[Mockapetris87b] P. Mockapetris, “Domain Names ─ Implementation and Specification,” RFC 1035, IETF Network Working Group, Nov 1987
[NATDNS] “Special Circumstance and Requirement for the Configuration of DNS with NAT”, http://www.tandb.com.au/internet/nat_dns/
[Park01] Juyoung Park, Seok Joo Koh, Shin Gak Kang, and Dae Young Kim, “Multicast Delivery Based on Unicast and Subnet Multicast,” IEEE Communication Letters, Vol. 5, NO. 4, Apr 2001
[Postel81a] J. Postel, “Internet Protocol,” RFC 791, IETF Network Working Group, Sep 1981
[Postel81b] J. Postel, “Internet Control Message Protocol,” RFC 792, IETF Network Working Group, Sep 1981
[Simpson95] W. Simpson, “IP in IP Tunneling,“ RFC 1853, IETF Network Working Group, Oct 1995
[Srisuresh99a] P. Srisuresh, G. Tsirtsis, P. Akkiraju, and A. Heffman, “DNS extensions to Network Address Translator (DNS_ALG),” RFC 2694, IETF Network Working Group, Sep 1999
[Srisuresh99b] P. Srisuresh and M. Holdrege, “IP Network Address Translator (NAT) Terminology and Considerations,” RFC 2663, IETF Network Working Group, Aug 1999
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