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研究生:姚乃綺
研究生(外文):Nai Chi Yao
論文名稱:可抵禦明文攻擊的一種機制
論文名稱(外文):A Scheme Withstanding the Plaintext Attack
指導教授:葉義雄葉義雄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yi-Shiung Yeh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:資訊工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:96
中文關鍵詞:密碼學隨機變數產生器基底轉換
外文關鍵詞:CryptographyRandom number generatorConverting Among radicesAESDESRijndael
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在本篇論文中,我們提出利用加入一個隨機變數和基底的轉換的機制對明文先做一個處理,使得在密碼系統中同樣的一個明文可以因此而產生出不同的密文。一方面因為隨機變數是不固定的,若其長度為r,則可產生出2|r|不同的隨機變數。另一方面,我們運用基底轉換的技巧打亂了原來的訊息。如此一來,讓攻擊者很難做攻擊。此外,在此篇論文中,我們另外將此種可抵禦明文攻擊的機制應用在DES和AES上。整個方法的安全性是建立於我們採用的區塊加密法DES或AES。本方法讓攻擊者更難攻擊,使得原有的DES或AES演算法擁有更進一步清楚而明確的安全性質。

In this thesis, we suggest a new method to add random number and convert among radices such as the fixed plaintext can produce more and different ciphertext in AES. On the one hand, because the random number is not fixed, that is to say, if the length of random number is r, then it can produce 2|r| different random number. On the other hand, we utilize the method of converting among radices to disarrange original message. Then, it is more difficult for an attacker. Furthermore, we apply this scheme to DES and AES in this thesis. The security of the whole scheme is based on the block cipher, AES and DES. Our method makes the attacker is difficult to decrypt, and that improve the original AES or DES algorithm to have more clear security properties.

摘 要 I
ABSTRACT II
致 謝 III
TABLE OF CONTENTS IV
TABLE OF CONTENTS IV
LIST OF FIGURES VII
LIST OF TABLES VIII
LIST OF ALGORITHMS IX
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND AND RELATED WORK 3
2.1 CRYPTOGRAPHY 3
2.2 CRYPTANALYTIC ATTACK 5
2.2.1 The Types of Attack 5
2.2.2 Evaluation Of Attack 7
2.3 DATA REPRESENT AND NUMBER SYSTEMS 8
2.3.1 Radix Number Systems 8
2.3.2 Conversion Among Radices 9
2.4 RANDOM NUMBER GENERATION 21
2.4.1 Background And Classification 23
2.4.2 RBG/RNG 25
2.4.3 PRBG/PRNG 27
2.4.4 CSPRBG/CSPRNG 32
2.5 BLOCK CIPHER 34
2.5.1 DES Algorithm 34
2.5.2 AES Algorithm 41
CHAPTER 3 OUR PROPOSED SCHEME 54
3.1 MOTIVATION 54
3.2 THE PROPOSED ALGORITHM 54
3.2.1 Adding Random Number 54
3.2.2 Conversion Among Radices 55
3.2.3 Deal With Overflow 56
3.2.4 The Flow Chart 59
3.3 ALGORITHM IN DETAIL 64
3.4 REVERSELY 66
3.5 DISCUSSION 67
3.5.1 Advantages 67
3.5.2 Drawbacks 68
CHAPTER 4 THE IMPROVEMENT OF DES AND AES 69
4.1 APPLY PURPOSED ALGORITHM TO DES 69
4.1.1 Randomize 70
4.1.2 Reversely 71
4.1.3 More examples 72
4.2 APPLY PROPOSED ALGORITHM TO AES 73
4.2.1 Randomize 74
4.2.2 Reversely 76
4.2.3 More Examples 76
4.3 DISCUSSION 77
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION 78
REFERENCE 79
APPENDIX A — EXAMPLE OF DES APPLICATION 81
APPENDIX B — EXAMPLE OF AES APPLICATION 89

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[3] William Stallings, “Cryptography and network security: principles and practice”, 2-edition, Prentice Hall International, Inc, 1999.
[4] Electronic Frontier Foundation “Cracking DES: Secrets of Encryption Research, Wiretap Politics, and Chip Design” O’Reilly& Associates, Inc.
[5] “Announcing Development of a Federal Information Processing Standard for Advanced Encryption Standard, ” Department of Commerce National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S.A, January 2, 1997
[6] http://csrc.nist.gov/encryption/aes/index2.html
[7] http://csrc.nist.gov/encryption/aes/round1/round1.htm#algorithms
[8] http://csrc.nist.gov/encryption/aes/round1/r1report.htm
[9] http://csri.nist.gov/encryption/aes/round2/r2report.pdf
[10] http://lglwww.epfl.ch/~jkienzle/old/Digital_Money/node29.html
[11] http://www.x5.net/faqs/crypto/q63.html
[12] http://www.cs.rutgers.edu/~murdocca/POCA/Chapter02.html
[13] http://www.eelab.usyd.edu.au/digital_tutorial/chapter2/2_1.html
[14] http://www.eelab.usyd.edu.au/digital_tutorial/chapter2/2_2.html
[15] http://pages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~dsb/Cpsc355/Notes/pre03.html
[16] A. J. Menezes, P.C.V. Oorschot, and S.A. Vanstone, “Handbook of Applied Cryptography,” CRC Press, 1997.
[17] http://csrc.nist.gov/encryption/tkrng.html
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[19] http://csrc.nist.gov/rng/rng6_2.html
[20] Joan Daemen, Vincent Rijmen, “AES Proposal: Rijndael”, AES Algorithm Submission, Sepember 3, 1999.
[21] A.Menezes, P.van Oorschot, and S. Vanstone, Handbook of Applied Cryptography, CRC Press, New York, 1997, p.81-83.
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[24] J. Daemen, "Cipher and hash function design strategies based on linear and differential cryptanalysis", Doctoral Dissertation, March 1995, K.U.Leuven.
[25] http://csrc.nist.gov/encryption/aes/round2/aesfact.html
[26] http://www.epic.org/crypto/aes_notice.html
[27] http://www.nist.gov/aes/
[28] Dr.Brian Gladman, “A specification for Rijndael, the AES algorithm”, July 2001.
[29] fips-197, “Announcing the ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD (AES)”, November 26, 2001.
[30] FIPS PUB 186-2,”Digital signature standard (DSS)”, January 27, 2000.
[31] Willam Stalling著, 蔡文能、葉義雄譯, ”網路安全精要─應用與標準”, 台灣培生教育, 台北, 2002年2月.
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