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研究生:林俊宇
研究生(外文):Gun-Yu Lin
論文名稱:AES與NESSIE
論文名稱(外文):AES and NESSIE
指導教授:葉義雄葉義雄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yi-Shiung Yeh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:資訊工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:167
中文關鍵詞:AESNESSIERijndael
外文關鍵詞:AESNESSIERijndael
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在本篇論文中,我們介紹了先進的加密標準 (AES) 與 NESSIE。在 1997 年 NIST 這個組織發起了一個對稱性加密演算法的徵選程序,NIST 從15 個演算法之中選出了 MARS, RC6TM, Rijndael, Serpent 還有 Twofish 進入最後的徵選階段,最後 NIST 決定提出 Rijndael 為 AES的加密演算法。NESSIE 是由一個歐洲的電腦程序委員會 (IST) 所提出的一個計劃,是一個為期三年的計劃,開始於2000年1月,這個計劃的主要目的希望能夠透過一個透明,公開的程序,
來選出一些經由公開召集方式所提出的密碼學的演算法。這些演算法包括了區塊密碼(block cipher),流動密碼(stream cipher),hash 函數,MAC 演算法,電子簽章法,公開金鑰加密法。NESSIE 這個計劃現在尚未結束,還在進行中。

In this thesis, we describe the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and the New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity, and Encryption (NESSIE). In 1997, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) initiated a process to select a symmetric-key encryption algorithm. NIST selected MARS, RC6TM, Rijndael, Serpent and Twofish as finialists from 15 candidate algorithms. Finally the NIST decided to propose Rijndael as the AES. NESSIE is a Project within the Information Societies Technology (IST) Programme of the European Commission. NESSIE is a 3-year project, which started on 1st January 2000. The main objective of the NESSIE project is to put forward a portfolio of strong cryptographic primitives that has been obtained after an open call and been evaluated using a transparent and open process. These primitives include block ciphers, stream ciphers, hash functions, MAC algorithms, digital signature schemes, and public-key encryption schemes. NESSIE is still running and not yet finished now.

Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Background 2
1.2.1 Block ciphers 2
1.2.2 Stream Ciphers 14
1.2.3 Public key Encryption (asymmetric encryption) 18
1.2.4 Hash Functions and MACs 19
1.2.5 Digital Signature 22
1.2.6 Identification 23
Chapter 2. AES (Advanced Encryption Standard ) 27
2.1 Introduction to AES 27
2.2 The selection process 28
2.2.1 Timeline 28
2.2.2 Why Rijndael 30
2.3 Finalist candidate algorithms 30
2.3.1 MARS 31
2.3.2 RC6 34
2.3.3 Rijndael 36
2.3.4 Serpent 42
2.3.5 Twofish 44
2.4 Performance Evaluation of finalists 46
2.4.1 Encryption Speed 46
2.4.2 Decryption Speed 50
2.4.3 Key setup speed 52
2.4.4 Summary of speed 54
2.5 Security Analysis of Finalists 56
Chapter 3. NESSIE (New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity, and Encryption) 58
3.1 Introduction to NESSIE 58
3.1.1 Goals of NESSIE 58
3.1.2 Expected achievements and impact 59
3.2 General Requirements 60
3.2.1 Selection criteria 60
3.2.2 Type of Primitives 60
3.2.3 Security Requirements for Each Primitive 61
3.3 The selection process 62
3.3.1 The Primitives of NESSIE 63
Chapter 4. NESSIE’s Encryption Algorithms 65
4.1 Block Ciphers 65
4.1.1 IDEA(International Data Encryption Algorithm) 65
4.1.2 Khazad 68
4.1.3 MISTY1 71
4.1.4 SAFER++ 76
4.1.5 E2 79
4.1.6 Camellia 82
4.1.7 RC6 83
4.1.8 SHACAL 83
4.1.9 Performance Evaluation of the block ciphers 85
4.1.10 Security Analysis of the block ciphers 89
4.2 Asymmetric Ciphers 91
4.2.1 ACE-KEM 91
4.2.2 EPOC-2 96
4.2.3 PSEC-KEM 98
4.2.4 ECIES-KEM 100
4.2.5 RSA-OAEP 101
4.2.6 Performance Evaluation 107
4.2.7 Security Analysis of Asymmetric Ciphers 108
4.3 Stream Ciphers 110
4.3.1 SOBER-t16 110
4.3.2 SOBER-t32 114
4.3.3 SNOW 114
4.3.4 BMGL 118
4.3.5 Performance Evaluation 119
4.3.6 Security Analysis 120
4.4 MAC and Hash Functions 120
4.4.1 Two-Track-MAC 120
4.4.2 UMAC (2000) 123
4.4.3 Whirlpool 129
4.4.4 Performance Evaluation 131
4.4.5 Security Analysis 133
Chapter 5. NESSIE’s Protocol Schemes 135
5.1 Digital Signature Schemes 135
5.1.1 ECDSA 135
5.1.2 ESIGN 136
5.1.3 RSA-PSS 141
5.1.4 SFLASH 149
5.1.5 Quartz 152
5.1.6 Performance Evaluation 157
5.1.7 Security Analysis 158
5.2 Identification Schemes 159
5.2.1 GPS identification scheme 160
5.2.2 Performance Evaluation 161
5.2.3 Security Analysis of GPS 162
Chapter 6. Conclusion 163

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[2] A. Menezes, P. van Oorschot, S. Vanstone, “ Handbook of Applied Cryptography “, CRC Press, Inc. 1997.
[3] James Nechvatal, Elaine Barker, Lawrence Bassham, William Burr, Morris Dworkin, James Foti, Edward Robak, “ Report on the Development of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) “, October 2 2000.
[4] Carolynn Burwick, Don Coppersmith Edward, D’Avignon, Rosario Gennaro, Shai Halevi, Charanjit Jutla, StephenM. MatyasJr. , Luke O’Connor, Mohammad Peyravian, David Safford, Nevenko Zunic, “ MARS - a candidate cipher for AES “, IBM Corporation Revised, September 22 1999.
[5] Ronald L. Rivest, M.J.B. Robshaw, R.Sidney, Y.L.Yin, “ The RC6 Block Cipher ”, Version 1.1, August 20 1998.
[6] Joan Daemen, Vincent Rijmen, “ AES Proposal : Rijndael “, March 9 1999.
[7] Rose Anderson, Eli Biham, Lars Knudsen, “ Serpent A New Block Cipher Proposal “.
[8] Rose Anderson, Eli Biham, Lars Knudsen, “ Serpent: A Proposal for the Advanced Encryption Standard “.
[9] Bruce Schneier, John Kelsey, Doug Whiting, David Wagner, Chris Hall, Niels Ferguson, “ Twofish: A 128-Bit Block Cipher “, June 15 1998.
[10] Kazumaro Aoki, Tetsuya Ichikawa, Masayuki Kanda, Mitsuru Matsui, Shiho Moriai, Junko Nakajima, Toshio Tokita, “ Camellia: A 128-Bit Block Cipher Suitable for Multiple Platforms ”, September 26 2000.
[11] Kazumaro Aoki, Tetsuya Ichikawa, Masayuki Kanda, Mitsuru Matsui, Shiho Moriai, Junko Nakajima, Toshio Tokita, “ Specification of Camellia — a 128-bit Block Cipher”, March 10 2000.
[12] Nippon Telegraph, Telephone Corporation, “ Specification of E2 — a 128-bit Block Cipher “, June 14 1998.
[13] Nippon Telegraph, Telephone Corporation, “ Supporting Document on E2 “, April 1 1999.
[14] X. Lai, J.L. Massey, “ The IDEA Block Cipher “.
[15] Paulo S.L.M Barreto, Vincent Rijmen, “ The KHAZAD Legacy-Level Block Cipher “.
[16] Mitsuru Matsui, “ New Block Encryption Algorithm MISTY ”.
[17] Mitsuru Matsui, “ Specification of MISTY1 — a 64-bit Block Cipher “, version 1.00, Mitsubishi Electronic Corporation, September 18 2000.
[18] Mitsuru Matsui, “ Supporting Document of MISTY1 “, version 1.10, Mitsubishi Electronic Corporation, September 25 2000.
[19] Ronald L. Rivest, Matthew J.B. Robshaw, Raymond M. Sidney, Yiqun Lisa Yin, “ RC6TM Block Cipher “.
[20] James L. Massey, “ SAFER K-64: A Byte-Oriented Block-Ciphering Algorithm “.
[21] Prof. James, L. Massey, Dr. Gurgen, H. Khachatrian, Dr. Melsik, K.Kuregian, “ Nomination of SAFER++ as Candidate Algorithm for the New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity, and Encryption (NESSIE) ”, 26 September 2000.
[22] Helena Handschuh, David Naccache, “ SHACAL “.
[23] Vincent Rijmen, Joan Daemen, Bart Preneel, Antoon Bosselares, Erik De Win, “ The Cipher SHARK “.
[24] Thomas Schweinberger, Victor Shoup “ ACE: The Advanced Cryptographic Engine “, August 14 2000.
[25] Don Johnson, Alfred Menezes, Scott Vanstone, “ The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) “.
[26] Rachel Shipsey, Royal Holloway, “ ECIES “, March 1 2001.
[27] Eiichiro Fujisaki, Tetsutaro Kobayashi, Hikaru Morita, Hiroaki Oguro, Tatsuaki Okamoto, Satomi Okazaki, David Pointcheval, Shigenori Uchiyama, “ EPOC : Efficient Probabilistic public-key Encryption (Submission to NESSIE) “, August 2000.
[28] Eiichiro Fujisaki, Tetsutaro Kobayashi, Hikaru Morita, Hiroaki Oguro, Tatsuaki Okamoto, Satomi Okazaki, David Pointcheval, Shigenori Uchiyama, “ PSEC : Provably secure Elliptic Curve Encryption Scheme (Submission to NESSIE) “, October 27 2000.
[29] Ronald L.Rivest, Adi Shamir, Leonard Adleman, Mihir Bellare, Phillip Rogaway, Don B. Johnson, Stephen M. Matyas, “ RSA-OAEP Encryption Scheme “, September 28 2000.
[30] Ronald L.Rivest, Adi Shamir, Leonard Adleman, Mihir Bellare, Phillip Rogaway, Don B. Johnson, Stephen M. Matyas, “ RSA-OAEP Encryption Scheme “, October 12 2001.
[31] Victor Shoup, “ A Proposal for an ISO Standard for Public Key Encryption (version 2.0) “, September 17 2001.
[32] NTT Information Sharing Platform Laboratories, NTT Corporation, “ EPOC-2 Specification “, October 12 2001.
[33] NTT Information Sharing Platform Laboratories, NTT Corporation, “ PSEC-KEM Specification “, October 12 2001.
[34] Nicolas Courtois, Louis Goubin, Jacques Patarin, “ Quartz, an asymmetric signature scheme for short signatures on PC “, second revised version, October 2001.
[35] Ronald L. Rivest, Adi Shamir, Leonard Adleman, Mihir Bellare, Phillip Rogaway, Burt Kaliski, “ RSA-PSS Signature Scheme with Appendix “, September 28 2000.
[36] Nicolas Courtois, Louis Goubin, Jacques Patarin, “SFLASH, a fast asymmetric signature scheme for low-cost smartcards “.
[37] NTT Information Sharing Platform Laboratories, NTT Corporation, “ ESIGN Specification “, October 12 2001.
[38] Marc Girault, Guillaume Poupard, Jacques Sterm, “ GPS, an asymmetric identification for on the fly authentication of low cost smart cards “, version 2.0, October 12 2001.
[39] Hans Dobbertin, Antoon Bosselaers, Bart Preneel, “ RIPEMD-160: A Strengthened Version of RIPEMD “, April 18 1996.
[40] Bert den Boer, “ Two-Track-MAC (TTMAC) “.
[41] Phillip Rogaway, Chair, Daniel Gusfield, Daniel Boneh, “ Software-Optimized Universal Hashing and Message Authentication ”, Septerber 2000.
[42] Patrik Ekdahl, Thomas Johansson, “ SNOW- a new stream cipher “.
[43] Johan Hastad, Mats Naslund, “ BMGL: Synchronous Key-stream Generator with Provable Security (Revision 1) ”, March 6 2001.
[44] Philip Hawkes, Gregory G.Rose, “ Primitive Specification and Supporting Documention for SOBER-t16 Submission to NESSIE “.
[45] Philip Hawkes, Gregory G.Rose, “ Primitive Specification and Supporting Documention for SOBER-t32 Submission to NESSIE “.
[46] Paulo S.L.M Barreto, Vincent Rijmen, “ The WHIRLPOOL Hashing Function “.
[47] NESSIE project, “ Deliverable D13 —Security evaluation of NESSIE first phase ”, Available at www.cryptonessie.org/deliverables.
[48] NESSIE project, “ Deliverable D14 — report on the performance evaluation of the NESSIE candidates”, Available at www.cryptonessie.org/deliverables.
[49] NESSIE project, “ Deliverable D17 —A preliminary report of realistic performance estimates ”, Available at www.cryptonessie.org/deliverables.
[50] NESSIE project, “ Deliverable D18 —“ Update on the selection of algorithms for further investigation during the second round ”, Available at www.cryptonessie.org/deliverables.
[51] NESSIE project, “ NESSIE call for cryptographic primitives”, Available at www.cryptonessie.org/call.
[52] http://csrc.nist.gov/encryption/aes/index.html.
[53] http://www.cosic.esat.kuleuven.ac.be/nessie/.

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