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研究生:鄭育仁
研究生(外文):Yu-Jen Cheng
論文名稱:利用可移除之可視浮水印技術作影像版權保護及驗證
論文名稱(外文):Copyright and Integrity Protection for Images by Removable Visible Watermarking Techniques
指導教授:蔡文祥蔡文祥引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Hsiang Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:資訊科學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:88
中文關鍵詞:removable visible watermarkingcopyright protectionimage authentication
外文關鍵詞:可移除的可視浮水印版權保護影像認證
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由於數位科技的發展,數位影像可能被複製,甚至被竄改。這將會引起非授權者對數位影像的非法使用。因此,可利用數位浮水印技術來證明影像的版權。然而,使用者往往需要同時保存原始影像及其加入浮水印的影像,這將會造成儲存空間的浪費。因此,嵌入可移除可視浮水印的方法是非常值得發展的。在這篇論文裡,我們提出三種嵌入可移除可視浮水印的方法。首先,針對BMP影像,利用人類視覺模型及替換LSB的方法。接著,根據排序調色盤的方法來處理GIF影像。最後,調整DC係數值的方法來處理JPEG影像。在我們所提出的方法中,皆可透過移除嵌入的可視浮水印來恢復原始影像,並且,我們可藉由抽取可視浮水印來證明影像版權。此外,對於BMP和GIF影像,我們所提出的方法也可驗證其影像的完整性。相關的實驗結果證明所提方法的可行性。最後,我們也提出一個具雙層架構概念的影像認證機制,其相關的服務則由區域與中央影像認證中心提供。

Because of the development of digital technologies, digital images may be copied or even tampered. This will result in unauthorized uses, misappropriation, and misrepresentation of digital images. Digital watermarking techniques are used for verifying the copyright of images. However, users need to keep both original images and corresponding watermarked ones. This really results in a waste of storage space. Consequently, a method of embedding removable visible watermarks is quite worthy to develop. In this study, three methods are proposed for this purpose. First, a method using a human visual model and the LSB replacement technique is proposed for BMP images. Next, a method based on a sorted color palette is proposed for GIF images. Lastly, a method based on the adjustments of DC DCT coefficient values is proposed for JPEG images. All of the proposed methods can be employed to remove embedded visible watermarks to restore original images. The copyright of the watermarked image can be verified by the three proposed methods by extracting the embedded visible watermark. Moreover, for BMP and GIF images, the integrity of an image can also be authenticated by the proposed methods. Good experimental results prove the feasibility of the proposed methods. Finally, a concept of two-level image authentication mechanism is also proposed, based on which some functions of local and centralized image authentication centers are suggested.

Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Review of Related Works 2
1.2.1 Review of Previous Studies on Visible Watermarks 2
1.2.2 Review of Functions of Existing Authentication Centers 4
1.3 Overview of Proposed Method 4
1.3.1 Terminologies 4
1.3.2 Brief Descriptions of Proposed Methods 5
1.3.3 Applications of Proposed Methods 7
1.3.4 Contributions 8
1.5 Thesis Organization 8
Chapter 2 Copyright and Integrity Protection for Bitmap Images by Visible and Invisible Watermarking Techniques 10
2.1 Introduction 10
2.1.1 Usages of Bitmap Images 11
2.1.2 Properties of BMP Images 11
2.1.3 A Human Visual Model for Image Watermarking and Authentication 12
2.1.4 Principle of Proposed Method 13
2.2 Proposed Copyright and Integrity Protection Method 15
2.2.1 Embedding of Irremovable Invisible Watermarks by LSB Replacement 15
2.2.2 Embedding of Irremovable Invisible Watermarks by A Human Visual Model 16
2.2.3 Embedding of Removable Visible Watermarks by Image Color Adjustment 17
2.2.4 Extraction of Watermarks for Copyright Verification and Integrity Authentication 17
2.2.5 Recovery of Original Images by Removal of Visible Watermarks 18
2.2.6 Overall Process of Proposed Method for Copyright and Integrity Protection 19
2.3 Experimental Results and Discussions 27
2.3.1 Experimental Results 27
2.3.2 Discussions 31
Chapter 3 Copyright and Integrity Protection for Color Palette Images 32
3.1 Introduction 32
3.1.1 Usages of Color Palette Images 32
3.1.2 Properties of GIF Images 33
3.1.3 A Palette-Sorting Algorithm for Keeping Palette Unique 33
3.1.4 Principles of Proposed Method 35
3.2 Proposed Copyright and Integrity Protection Method 36
3.2.1 Embedding of Removable Visible Watermark and Irremovable Invisible Watermark by Palette Index Replacement 37
3.2.2 Extraction of Watermarks for Copyright Verification and Integrity Authentication 38
3.2.3 Recovery of Original Images by Removal of Visible Watermarks 39
3.2.4 Overall Process of Proposed Copyright and Integrity Protection Method 40
3.3 Experimental Results and Discussions 48
3.3.1 Experimental Results 48
3.3.2 Discussions 52
Chapter 4 Copyright Protection for Compressed Images by Visible and Invisible Watermarking Techniques 54
4.1 Introduction 54
4.1.1 Usages of Compressed Images 55
4.1.2 Properties of JPEG Images 55
4.1.3 Principles of Proposed Method 58
4.2 Proposed Copyright Protection Method by Removable Visible Watermark 59
4.2.1 Embedding of Removable Visible Watermark by Changes of DC Coefficients 60
4.2.2 Embedding of Irremovable Invisible Watermark by Adjustment of DCT Coefficient Relations 60
4.2.3 Extraction of Watermarks for Copyright Verification 61
4.2.4 Recovery of Original Images by Removal of Visible Watermarks 62
4.2.5 Overall Processes of Proposed Copyright Protection Method 62
4.3 Alternative Copyright Protection by Invisible Watermarks Using Proposed Method 70
4.4 Experimental Results 70
4.4.1 Experimental Results of Copyright Protection by Visible Watermarks 71
4.4.2 Experimental Results of Copyright Protection by Invisible Watermarks 74
4.5 Discussions 76
Chapter 5 A Study on Image Authentication Mechanism 78
5.1 Introduction 78
5.1.1 Extension of Services for Traditional 78
5.1.2 Proposed Two-Level Image Authentication Mechanism 78
5.2 Roles of Local and Central Image Authentication Centers 79
5.3 Service Functions of Local and Central Image Authentication Centers 80
5.3.1 Service Functions of Local Image Authentication Center 80
5.3.2 Service Functions of Central Image Authentication Center 81
5.4 Registration Procedure for Central Image Authentication Center 81
5.5 Authentication Procedure for Central Image Authentication Center 82
Chapter 6 Conclusions and Suggestions 84
6.1 Conclusions 84
6.2 Suggestions for Future Works 86
References 87

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