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研究生:呂志偉
研究生(外文):Chih Wei Lu
論文名稱:利用浮水印技術做MPEG視訊的保真驗證與註解隱藏
論文名稱(外文):Fidelity Authentication and Annotation Hiding for MPEG Videos by Watermarking Techniques
指導教授:蔡文祥蔡文祥引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Hsiang Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:資訊科學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:79
中文關鍵詞:資料隱藏MPEG視訊驗證離散餘弦轉換區塊易碎浮水印半易碎浮水印
外文關鍵詞:data hidingMPEG video authenticationDCT blockfragile watermarksemi-fragile watermark
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在本論文中提出了兩種驗證MPEG視訊完整性與保真度的方法,及一種在MPEG視訊中藏入註解資料的方法。在視訊驗證的第一個方法中,我們利用易碎浮水印的技術與在係數中建立偶同位(even-parity)的關係,驗證信號被嵌入離散餘弦轉換區塊(DCT block)的離散係數中。在視訊驗證的第二個方法中,我們利用半易碎浮水印的技術,驗證信號被嵌入在預先選定的係數位置中,及MPEG的移動(motion)向量中。藉由檢驗從視訊抽取出的浮水印信號,視訊的完整性與保真度得以被驗證。在所提出註解隱藏的方法中,我們利用強韌浮水印的技術,在一個8´8的離散餘弦轉換區塊中藏入一個位元的註解資料,同時在抽取註解資料的過程中,利用投票機制(voting scheme)決定最終抽取出來的註解資料。利用上述所提出的方法,藏入的資料對視訊品質所造成的影響可以降低。此外,所藏入的資料可以直接地被抽取出來,而不需要利用到原始的視訊。實驗結果證明了所提出的方法是可行的。

Two methods for authenticating the integrity and fidelity of a MPEG video, and a method for hiding annotations in MPEG videos are proposed in this study. In the first method for video authentication, a fragile watermarking technique is employed, in which authentication signals are embedded in the DCT blocks by setting up even-parity relations among the DCT coefficients. And in the second method for video authentication, a semi-fragile watermarking technique is employed, in which authentication signals are embedded in selected DCT coefficients and MPEG motion vectors. The integrity and fidelity of a video are authenticated by examining the watermark signals extracted from the video. In the proposed method for annotation hiding, a robust watermarking technique is employed, in which an 8´8 DCT block is used to hide exactly one bit of the annotation data, and a voting scheme is utilized in a data extraction process to decide the final extracted annotation data. The proposed methods can be employed to minimize the perceptual degradation of video quality caused by the embedded data. Furthermore, the embedded data may be extracted directly without using the original video sequences. Good experimental results prove the feasibility of the proposed methods.

CONTENTS
ABSTRACT (in Chinese) i
ABSTRACT (in English) ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii
CONTENTS iv
LIST OF FIGURES viii
LIST OF TABLES ix
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Application Requirements 2
1.2.1 Requirements for Video Authentication 2
1.2.2 Requirements for Data Hiding in Videos 3
1.3 Overview of Proposed Methods 4
1.3.1 Terminologies 4
1.3.2 Brief Descriptions of Proposed Methods 5
1.4 Contributions 7
1.5 Thesis Organization 7
Chapter 2 Literature Survey 8
2.1 Introduction 8
2.2 Review of MPEG Standard 8
2.2.1 Layered Structure of MPEG Video Sequence 9
2.2.2 Principle of Compression of MPEG Video 10
2.2.3 Encoding of MPEG Video 12
2.2.4 Decoding of MPEG Video 14
2.3 Survey of Techniques for Video Authentication 16
2.4 Survey of Techniques for Data Hiding in Videos 17
Chapter 3 Proposed MPEG Video Authentication Method by Fragile Watermarking Technique 18
3.1 Introduction 18
3.2 Proposed Authentication Method by Fragile Watermarking Technique 19
3.2.1 Possible Ways for Embedding Watermark Signals 19
3.2.2 Proper Stages for Embedding Watermark Signals 21
3.2.3 Proposed Process for Embedding Watermark Signals 22
3.2.4 Proposed Authentication Process 27
3.3 Experimental Results 30
3.4 Discussions 35
Chapter 4 Proposed MPEG Video Authentication Method by Semi-Fragile Watermarking Techniques 37
4.1 Introduction 37
4.2 Proposed Method for Embedding Semi-Fragile Watermarks 38
4.2.1 Process for Embedding Semi-Fragile Watermarks in I Frames 38
4.2.2 Process for Embedding Semi-Fragile Watermarks in P and B Frames
41
4.3 Proposed Authentication Method 44
4.3.1 Process for Authentication of Integrity and Fidelity of I Frames 44
4.3.2 Process for Authentication of Fidelity of P and B Frames 47
4.4 Experimental Results 52
4.5 Discussions 57
Chapter 5 Authentication of Edited MPEG Video 59
5.1 Introduction 59
5.2 Acceptable Video Re-compression Operation 59
5.2.1 Re-compression with Different Bit-rates 59
5.2.2 A Solution 60
5.3 Unacceptable Video Modifications by Experienced Users on Bitstreams without Re-compressions 60
5.3.1 Modification on Block Codes of Bitstreams 61
5.3.2 A Solution 61
5.4 Unacceptable Video Modifications by Common Users on Frames with Re-compression 62
5.4.1 Editing of Contents of Frames by Film Editing Software 62
5.4.2 A Solution 62
5.5 Unacceptable Video Modifications by Common Users on Frames without Re-compression 63
5.5.1 Replacement of Entire Frames by Unit of GOP Using Film Editing Software 63
5.5.2 A Solution 63
5.6 Conclusions 63
Chapter 6 Proposed Annotation Hiding Method by Robust Watermarking Technique 65
6.1 Introduction 65
6.1.1 Annotation Hiding by A Voting Scheme 66
6.1.2 Annotation Hiding Process 66
6.1.3 Annotation Extraction Process 70
6.2 Experimental Results 73
6.3 Discussions 75
Chapter 7 Conclusions and Suggestions 76
7.1 Conclusions 76
7.2 Suggestions for Future Works 77
References 79
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1: The Flowcharts of the proposed methods. (a) The flowchart of watermark embedding and annotation hiding. (b) The flowchart of watermark authentication and annotation extraction 6
Figure 2.1: The layered structure of an MPEG video sequence. 9
Figure 2.2: An Example of relationships among three types of frames in motion prediction 12
Figure 2.3: Zigzag order 14
Figure 2.4: Flowcharts of the MPEG system. (a) A flowchart of the encoding process. (b) A flowchart of the decoding process 15
Figure 3.1: Definition of three frequency bands in a DCT block 21
Figure 3.2: Possible ways of signal embedding and extraction for MPEG video system 22
Figure 3.3: An example of an 8´8 quantized DCT coefficients of a block 24
Figure 3.4: An example of an 8´8 quantized DCT coefficients of a block with the embedded signals 25
Figure 3.5: The flowchart of proposed watermark embedding in a video 27
Figure 3.6: The flowchart of proposed authentication of a suspicious MPEG video
30
Figure 3.7: Six frames of the original video. (a) The first frame (I frame). (b) The second frame (B frame). (c) The third frame (B frame). (d) The 4th frame (P frame). (e) The 5th frame (B frame). (f) The 6th frame (B frame) 32
Figure 3.8: Six frames of the watermarked video. (a) The first frame (I frame). (b) The second frame (B frame). (c) The third frame (B frame). (d) The 4th frame (P frame). (e) The 5th frame (B frame). (f) The 6th frame (B frame) 33
Figure 3.9: Six frames of the watermarked video that has been modified. (a) The first frame (I frame). (b) The second frame (B frame). (c) The third frame (B frame). (d) The 4th frame (P frame). (e) The 5th frame (B frame). (f) The 6th frame (B frame) 34
Figure 3.10: Six frames of the authenticated result of the modified video. The yellow regions are unauthentic regions. (a) The first frame (I frame). (b) The second frame (B frame). (c) The third frame (B frame). (d) The 4th frame (P frame). (e) The 5th frame (B frame). (f) The 6th frame (B frame) 35
Figure 4.1: The flowchart of embedding a watermark signal in an I frame of an MPEG video. 40
Figure 4.2: The flowchart of proposed watermark signal embedding for a P or B frame 43
Figure 4.3: Definition of a set of four adjacent macroblocks 44
Figure 4.4: The flowchart of proposed authentication process for an I frame 46
Figure 4.5: The flowchart of proposed authentication process for a P or B frame 51
Figure 4.6: Six frames of the original video. (a) The first frame (I frame). (b) The second frame (B frame). (c) The third frame (B frame). (d) The 4th frame (P frame). (e) The 5th frame (B frame). (f) The 6th frame (B frame) 53
Figure 4.7: Six frames of the watermarked video. (a) The first frame (I frame). (b) The second frame (B frame). (c) The third frame (B frame). (d) The 4th frame (P frame). (e) The 5th frame (B frame). (f) The 6th frame (B frame). 54
Figure 4.8: Six frames of the watermarked video that has been modified. (a) The first frame (I frame). (b) The second frame (B frame). (c) The third frame (B frame). (d) The 4th frame (P frame). (e) The 5th frame (B frame). (f) The 6th frame (B frame) 55
Figure 4.9: Six frames of the authenticated result of the modified video. The yellow regions are colored as unauthentic regions. (a) The first frame (I frame). (b) The second frame (B frame). (c) The third frame (B frame). (d) The 4th frame (P frame). (e) The 5th frame (B frame). (f) The 6th frame (B frame) 56
Figure 6.1: The flowchart of proposed annotation hiding process. 69
Figure 6.2: The flowchart of proposed annotation extraction process 72
Figure 6.3: Figure 6.3 Three I frames of the input video and the corresponding three I frames of the stego-video with 5 copies of 80 characters embedded. (a) The first frame of the input video with 30 characters embedded. (b) The 12th frame of the input video with 30 characters embedded. (c) The 24th frame of the input video with 20 characters embedded. (d) The first frame of the stego-video. (e) The 12th frame of the stego-video. (f) The 24th frame of the stego-video. 74
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1: The PSNR values of the watermarked video 32
Table 4.1: The PSNR values of the watermarked video 54
Table 6.1: standard intra-quantization tables in the MPEG compression standard (luminance component) 67
Table 6.2: The PSNR values of the stego-video 74

References
[1] Friedman, Gray L., “The Trustworthy Digital Camera: Restoring Credibility to the Photographic Image,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 39 no.4, pp. 905-901, Nov. 1993.
[2] D. Stinson, Cryptography Theory and Practice, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1995.
[3] I. Cox, M. Miller, “A review of watermarking and the importance of perceptual modeling,” proceeding of SPIE Conf. on Human Vision and Electronic Imaging, vol. 3, pp. 92-99, Feb. 1997.
[4] F. Hartung, B. Ggirod, “Digital watermarking of MPEG2 coded video in the bitstream domain,” Proceeding International Conference on Acoustic, Speech and Signal Processing, vol. 4, pp. 2621-2624, 1997.
[5] B. Tao, B.Dickinson, “Adaptive Watermarking in the DCT Domain,” Proceeding International Conference on Acoustic, Speech and Signal Processing, vol. 3, pp. 92-99, Feb. 1997.
[6] G. Langelaar, R. Lagendijk, and J.Biemond, “Real-time Labeling Methods for MPEG Compressed Video,” 18th Symposium on Information Theory in the Benelux, 15-16 May 1997.
[7] F. Hartung, B. Girod, “Watermarking of uncompressed and compressed video,“ Signal Processing, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 283-301, May 1998.
[8] S. Walton, “Information authentication for a slippery new age,” Dr. Dobbs Journal, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 18-26, April 1995.
[9] D. C. Wu and W. H. Tsai, “A Method for Creating Perceptually Based Fragile Watermarks for Digital Image Verification,” submitted to IEEE Transactions On Multimedia.
[10] M. Wu and B. Liu, “Watermarking for image authentication,” in Proc. IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, vol. II, pp. 437-441, Chicago, Illinois, October 1998.
[11] T. Y. Chung, et al., “Digital Watermarking for Copyright Protection of MPEG2 Compressed Video,” IEEE Transaction on Consumer Electronics, pp. 895-901, June 1998.
[12] E. H. Adelson, “Digital signal encoding and decoding apparatus,” U.S. Patent 4939515,1990.
[13] M.D. Swanson, M. Kobayashi and A. H. Tewfik, “Multimedia Data-Embedding and Watermarking Techniques,” Proceedings of IEEE, vol. 86, no. 6, pp. 1064-1087, June 1998.
[14] I. J. Cox, J. Killian, T. Leighton, and T. Shamoon, “A Secure Roust Watermark for Multimedia,” IEEE Transaction on Image Processing, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 1673-1678, DEC 1997.
[15] F.Hartung and B.Girod, “Watermarking of MPEG-2 encoded video without decoding and re-encoding,” Proceeding of SPIE EI’97, Multimedia Computing and Networking, vol. 3020, pp. 264-274, Jan 1999.
[16] J.J.Chae and B.S. Manjunath, “Data Hiding in Video,” Proceedings of IEEE International Conference of Image Processing (ICIP ’99), vol. 1, pp. 311-315, 199.
[17] Jun Zhang et al, “Embedding Watermark in MPEG Video Sequence,” IEEE Fourth Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing, pp. 535-540, Oct. 2001.
[18] “Coding of moving picture and associated audio information,” ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11, ISO/IEC 13818-2, 1996.

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