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研究生:郭淑娉
研究生(外文):Guo Shwu-Ping
論文名稱:鐵路捷運系統對家戶運具/路線選擇、居住分佈與環境影響之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Rail Transit System on Households’ Mode/route Choices, Residential-rent Distribution and Environmental Impacts
指導教授:許巧鶯許巧鶯引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsu Chaug-Ing
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:運輸科技與管理學系
學門:運輸服務學門
學類:運輸管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:260
中文關鍵詞:mode and route choiceresidential-rent distributionrail transit systembenefit analysistransportation external cost pricing
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There exist interactions among transportation, residential land use and environment systems. Namely, transportation improvement will increase the accessibility of urban area served by new transportation systems. Travelers will thus change their mode/route choices and travel patterns due to changes in accessibility. Moreover, the extension of urban transportation networks will further stimulate the development of new land-uses and new travel demands. Accordingly, the two actions mentioned above play important roles on the interaction between the transportation system and the land-use system. In the aspect of interactions between transportation and environmental impacts, transportation supply, which stimulates land uses and urban developments, also creates air pollution, noise and traffic congestion, and then deteriorates environmental quality. However, transportation externalities such as congestion, air pollution and noise, which are induced by the increasing usage of automobiles are unsettled, and eventuate in social costs and impair public health. To fulfill the social justice and to sustain social welfare, it is appropriate to determine the prices of transportation externalities and to charge road users. The pricing of transportation external costs, which are incorporated into individual households'' transportation costs, is treated as the linkage between transportation and environmental impacts in this research.
Based on the considerations mentioned above, this research from a viewpoint of long-term planning applies a continuum approximation method to represent surface streets as continuous networks and rail transit network as discrete one. Static and deterministic models by applying a mathematical programming method is proposed to explore relationships among travelers'' mode/route choices, residential site choices and environment system by taking into account several critical variables. Five issues are discussed in this research, that is, (1) integrated mode and route choices, (2) transportation v.s land-use, (3) transportation v.s environmental impacts, (4) transportation external cost pricing, and (5) fare variations of rail transit system.
For the first issue of this research, an integrated mode and route choice model incorporating travelers'' transfer behavior between surface streets and rail transit lines is constructed to analyze the commuters’ mode and route choice decisions from each residential site to the workplace. For the second issue of this research, the households’ mode choices and residential distribution model in a metropolitan area with surface streets and rail transit networks is formulated to analyze patronage to each transit station, households'' mode choices and residential rent distribution. The model is formulated to minimize the sum of households'' generalized travel costs and rent costs under user equilibrium by incorporating flow congestion effects and different income households'' bid-rent effects. Heterogeneity among residential sites and households is also considered to alleviate aggregation bias. For the third issue of this research, an air pollution diffusion equation and a noise propagation equation are applied to formulate the models of air pollution and noise distributions in the study area. Based on the results of above models, the quantitative benefits of rail transit system are further analyzed in terms of social-economic impacts, environmental impacts and urban development. For the fourth and fifth issues of this research, a households'' mode/route choice model with considering transportation external cost pricing or transit fare reductions is constructed to analyze their influences on households'' mode/route choices, patronage of rail transit lines and the benefit of decreased congestion, air pollution and noise. The total transportation cost therein includes the generalized travel cost and cost burdens of transportation externality taxes, which are measured by applying the theory of marginal-cost pricing. Finally, the Taipei metropolitan area with surface streets and rail transit lines is adopted to illustrate the application of the models constructed in this research.
Abstract.............................................i
Acknowledgement (In Chinese)........................iii
Content..............................................v
Table Content........................................viii
Figure Content.......................................ix
Chapter 1 Introduction..................................1
1.1 Motivations and Background.....................1
1.2 Objectives and Contributions..................12
1.3 Research Spectrum and Approaches..............20
1.4 Dissertation Framework........................21
Chapter 2 Literature Review............................27
2.1 Integrated Transportation and Land-use model..27
2.2 Integrated Entropy and Network Equilibrium
Model.........................................29
2.3 Integrated Residential Location Choice and
Transportation Model..........................30
2.4 Integrated Mode and Route Choice Model........33
2.5 Service Areas of Transportation Systems.......36
2.6 Environmental Impact Studies of Transportation
Systems.......................................38
2.7 Transportation Accessibility..................40
2.8 Transportation External Cost Pricing..........41
2.9 Public Transit Subsidy........................45
Chapter 3 Commuting Household''s Mode and Route Choices
Model........................................49
3.1 Access Mode and Route Choices Model...........50
3.2 Commuters'' Mode and Route Choices Model.......52
3.2.1 Primal Problem...........................52
3.2.2 Dual Problem.............................60
3.3 Finite Element Method.........................63
3.4 Problem Solving Procedure.....................67
Chapter 4 Households'' Mode Choices and Residential-Rent
Distribution Model...........................73
4.1 Households'' Residential Distribution..........75
4.2 Households’ Mode Choices and Residential
Distribution..................................82
4.3 Application of the Finite Element Method......86
4.4 Problem Solving Procedure.....................90
Chapter 5 Illustrative Example -
Households'' Mode Choices and Residential-Rent
Distribution.................................95
5.1 Data Collection and Estimation................96
5.2 Results without Rail Transit Networks........101
5.3 Results Validation............................108
5.4 Results after Completion of Rail Transit Networks..110
Chapter 6 Air Pollution Distribution and Noise Distribution
Models ...........................................121
6.1 Air Pollution Distribution Model................123
6.1.1 Dispersion and Distribution of Air
Pollution...................................124
6.1.2 Revised model...............................126
6.2 Noise Distribution Model.........................127
6.2.1 Propagation and distribution of noise.......127
6.2.2 Expectation of noise distribution...........132
6.3 Benefit Analysis.................................134
6.3.1 Generalized travel cost saving..............134
6.3.2 Environmental impacts.......................134
6.3.3 Urban development...........................135
Chapter 7 Illustrative Example - ........................
Benefits Analysis of Rail Transit System.........137
7.1 Data Collection and Estimation...................137
7.2 Results of Air Pollution Distribution............141
7.3 Results of Noise Distribution....................145
7.4 Benefits Analysis of Rail Transit System.........152
7.4.1 Generalized travel cost saving..............152
7.4.2 Air pollution and noise reductions..........154
7.4.3 Rent cost variation.........................155
7.4.4 Household density variation.................157
Chapter 8 Transportation External Cost Pricing, Transit Fare
Reductions and Households'' Mode/Route
Choices.........................................161
8.1 Households'' Mode and Route Choices...............161
8.2 Transportation External Cost Pricing, Transit
Fare Reductions and Households'' Mode/Route
choices..........................................166
8.2.1 Households’ mode/route choice model considering
transportation external cost pricing.........166
8.2.2 Households’ mode/route choice model ......
considering transit fare reductions..........172
8.3 Problem Solving Procedure.........................174
Chapter 9 Illustrative Example -
Comparison between Transportation External Cost
Pricing and Transit Fare Reductions...............183
9.1 Data Collection and Estimation....................184
9.2 Households'' Mode/route Choices before and after
Transportation External Cost Pricing..............186
9.3 Travel Time on Artificial Links vis Surface Streets
before and after Transportation External Cost
Pricing...........................................194
9.4 Distribution of Transportation External Cost
Pricing...........................................197
9.5 Results Analysis with Considering Transit Fare
Reductions........................................199
Chapter 10 Conclusions and Suggestions.....................207
10.1 Research Summary.................................210
10.2 Future Studies.....................................................215
References..................................................221
Glossary of Symbols.........................................231
Appendix Access Mode Combinations for Intercity Transportation
Terminals in a Metropolitan Area..................237
Vita (In Chinese)...........................................257
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