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研究生:梁伯嵩
研究生(外文):Bor-Sung Liang
論文名稱:手持型裝置中三維繪圖之彩現架構與模型傳輸
論文名稱(外文):Rendering Architecture and Model Transmission for 3-D Graphics in Handheld Devices
指導教授:任建葳任建葳引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chein-Wei Jen
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:電子工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:119
中文關鍵詞:三維繪圖手持型裝置彩現架構模型傳輸延遲光源照明運算索引式彩現進場漸進式模型
外文關鍵詞:3-D GraphicsHandheld devicesRendering ArchitectureModel TransmissionDeferred LightingIndex RenderingEntrance Progressive Model
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:346
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  • 下載下載:35
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
隨著三維繪圖應用的普及,在手持型裝置中實現三維繪圖彩現能力,將會是未來的潮流。因手持型裝置中所配備的運算硬體資源較少,而且所能使用到的網路頻寬也相對較低。因此我們需研發具運算效能的彩現架構與模型傳輸方式,以提供足以滿足各項三維繪圖應用需求的能力。在此論文中,我們深入探討三維繪圖彩現過程中資料流的特性,並考慮手持型裝置所特有的狀況,而研發出兩類具有運算效能的三維繪圖彩現架構,以及一種在網路環境下減少模型初始傳輸時的停滯感的方式。
我們研發的第一種三維繪圖彩現架構,根基於延遲光源照明運算以及索引式彩現技術。這架構可以避免在隱藏的多邊型與圖點上做多餘的運算,因而可以提高硬體的使用效能。經過模擬後,發現此架構在平塗著色法與高氏著色法中可以消去 10% ~ 70% 的光源照明運算,在馮氏著色法中可消去30% ~ 95%。除此之外,此架構可進一步減少彩現架構前級的幾何轉換量,若由 CPU 執行,約可消去 56.1% ~ 78.4% 的運算。而且此架構更可以將彩現運算的部分工作後延,如著色與紋理貼圖的運算均可以移至掃瞄速率區域。由於在彩現運算與掃瞄輸出兩項工作時間中取得平衡,因而可進一步提升整體彩現速率。我們研發的第二種三維繪圖彩現架構,利用三重佇列架構,實現延遲光源照明運算。此架構一樣能因延遲光源照明運算來減少不必要的光源運算。相較於傳統單一佇列的架構,此三重佇列的運算更可以有效的加速彩現運算。根據 cycle-true 模擬,此架構可以將彩現所需的時間,縮短至原先的 52.9%。在模型傳輸方面,我們研發了進場漸進式模型。此傳輸模式可以在模型尚未傳輸完之前,網路的 client端即可以開始繪出三維畫面,而減少使用者等待的時間。模擬結果顯示,在特定視角下,約只需接收到 24.2%~54% 的部分模型檔案,client端即可以開始繪製畫面,因而減少減少模型初始繪出前傳輸時的停滯感。
我們研發的兩類三維繪圖彩現架構,以及模型傳輸方式,可以在手持型裝置中,有效的改善三維彩現的運算效能與模型傳輸的使用者觀感。因此,我們在此論文中所提出架構與方法,將可有助於建立一個普及的行動三維彩現平台,以支援各項互動式的三維繪圖應用。

3-D graphics applications have played an important role in multimedia systems. With the progressive of VLSI technologies, it is a future trend to equip handheld devices with 3-D graphics abilities. Because of relative low computing power and narrow network bandwidth in handheld devices, we need to explore efficient rendering architectures and model transmission methods to offer enough performance for various applications. In this dissertation, we investigate on the nature of data flows in 3-D rendering, and propose efficient methods to improve the performance of 3-D graphics in handheld devices, including two sorts of rendering architectures and one model transmission method.
The first rendering architecture bases on our deferred lighting and index rendering techniques. It can reduce the unnecessary operations on invisible polygons and pixels to improve hardware utilization. By simulation, the result shows that index rendering can eliminate 10% ~ 70% lighting operations in flat and Gouraud shading, and 30% ~ 95% in Phong shading. Besides, this architecture can reduce equivalent CPU cost on geometry processing into 56.1% ~ 78.4% compared with traditional architectures. Furthermore, this architecture can move parts of rendering jobs (shading and texture mapping) into scan-out rate area to speeded up rendering, because of the balance on computing load. The second architecture is based on our deferred lighting technique and triple queue structure. The architecture benefits from deferred lighting to reduce lighting operations. Besides, since the queue can avoid pipeline stall to speedup rendering, the triple queue structure has better performance than the traditional single queue structure. By cycle-true simulation, the triple queue structure can reduce rendering cycles into 52.9%. For model transmission, we propose entrance progressive model (EPM). With the EPM, the handheld devices can render image in the halfway of model transmission, and therefore the initiation time is shortened. The simulation results show that the models can be rendered from a specific viewpoint when only 24.2%~54% of EPM files are transmitted, and hence the EPM can reduce the feeling of waiting in model transmission.
In the dissertation, we proposed two architectures and one transmission method to improve the efficiency of rendering and model transmission in handheld devices. Therefore, the proposed techniques can be utilized to construct mobile rendering platforms to support widespread interactive 3-D graphics applications.

Chap 1. Introduction 1
1.1 3-D Graphics in Handheld Devices 1
1.2 Issues for 3-D Graphics in Handheld Devices 2
1.2.1 Issues of 3-D Rendering 2
1.2.2 Issues of 3-D Rendering in Handheld Devices 3
1.2.3 Issues of Model Transmission in Mobile thin Clients 3
1.3 Contributions of this Dissertation 4
1.3.1 Rendering Architecture by Deferred Lighting and Index Rendering 4
1.3.2 Rendering Architecture by Deferred Lighting and Triple Queue Structure 5
1.3.3 Model Transmission by Entrance Progressive Model 5
1.4 Outline of this Dissertation 5
Chap 2. Overview of 3-D Graphics 7
2.1 Fundamental of 3-D Rendering 7
2.1.1 Rendering Directions 7
2.1.2 Illumination Models 8
2.2 Classifications of Rendering Methods 9
2.1.1 Polygon-based Rendering 9
2.1.2 Ray Tracing 10
2.1.3 Radiosity 11
2.1.4 Image-Based Rendering 11
2.3 Standard Rendering Pipeline 12
2.4 Geometry Subsystem 14
2.4.1 Transformations 14
2.4.2 Culling and Clipping 15
2.4.3 Lighting 15
2.4.4 Setup 16
2.5 Raster Subsystem 16
2.5.1 Scan Conversion 16
2.5.2 Shading 19
2.5.3 Hidden Surface Removal (Visibility Comparison) 22
2.5.4 Texture Mapping 23
2.6 Bottlenecks of Rendering Pipeline 25
2.7 Previous Rendering Architectures 26
2.8 Hybrids of 3-D Graphics and 2-D Images 35
Chap 3. Rendering for 3-D Graphics 37
3.1 Data Flow in Rendering Pipeline 37
3.1.1 Heterogeneous Data Flow 37
3.1.2 Different Types in Polygon Information 37
3.1.3 Types of Data Rate 38
3.1.4 Data Rates in Rendering Pipeline 39
3.2 Deferred Shading 41
3.3 Invisible Pixels and Triangles in Rendering Pipeline 43
3.4 Concepts of Efficient Rendering 43
3.4.1 Deferred Lighting 44
3.4.2 Index Rendering 44
3.4.3 Triple Queue Structure 45
3.5 Index Rendering 45
3.5.1 Concepts of Index Rendering 45
3.5.2 Architecture of Index Rendering 47
3.5.3 Data Flow in Index Rendering 53
3.5.4 Analysis and Simulations Parameters 56
3.5.5 Results of Operation Number Reduction 59
3.5.6 Results of Buffer Analysis 62
3.5.7 Summary of Index Rendering Architecture 65
3.5.8 Power Estimation for Lighting and Memory Access 67
Chap 4. Efficient Rendering Architectures 71
4.1 Dual Pipeline by Index Rendering 71
4.1.1 Dual Pipeline Rendering Architecture 71
4.1.2 Architecture for Embedded System 73
4.1.3 Visible Ratio for Polygons by Simulation 73
4.1.4 CPU Operations for Transform and Lighting 74
4.1.5 Summary of Dual Pipeline Architecture 77
4.2 Moving Shading and Texture Mapping into Scan-out Rate Area 78
4.2.1 Index Rendering with Double Buffering 78
4.2.2 Simulation Parameters 80
4.2.3 Cycle-accurate Simulation Results 81
4.2.4 Summary of Moving Shading and Texture Mapping into Scan-out Rate Area 81
4.3 Triple Queue Structure 83
4.3.1 Issues in Pipeline Data Flow 83
4.3.2 Triple Queue Structure 84
4.3.3 Rendering in Triple Queue Structure 85
4.3.4 Cycle-accurate Simulation 85
4.3.5 Summary of Triple Queue Structure 88
Chap 5. Efficient Model Transmission 89
5.1 Model Transmission in 3-D applications 89
5.1.1 Related Works 90
5.1.2 Considerations in Mobile Thin Client 91
5.2 Concepts of Entrance Progressive Model 92
5.2.1 Progressive Model Transmission for Rendering 92
5.2.2 Applications of EPM 93
5.2.3 EPM Representation 94
5.3 EPM Model Generation 96
5.3.1 Triangle and vertex subsets in each step 96
5.3.2 Differential subsets for triangle and vertex 97
5.3.3 Integral subsets for triangle and vertex 97
5.3.4 EPM Representation 98
5.3.5 Example of EPM representation 99
5.4 Model Transmission of EPM 101
5.4.1 Format of EPM File 101
5.4.2 Transmission of EPMs 102
5.4.3 Advantages of EPM Presentation 103
5.5. Simulation 103
5.5.1 Simulation Targets 103
5.5.2 Vertex and Triangle Numbers in EPM 104
5.5.3 Data Sizes in EPM 106
5.6 Summary of EPM 110
Chap 6. Conclusion 111
Reference 115

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