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研究生:李岳凌
研究生(外文):Yehlin Lee
論文名稱:頭相關轉移函數量測及含有殘響之三度空間聲音合成
論文名稱(外文):Head Related Transfer Function Measurement and 3-D Sound Synthesis with Reverberation
指導教授:杭學鳴杭學鳴引用關係蔣迪豪
指導教授(外文):Hsueh-Ming HangTi Hao Chiang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:電子工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:95
中文關鍵詞:空間聽覺三度空間聲音頭相關轉移函數殘響方向線索距離線索
外文關鍵詞:Spatial Hearing3-D AudioHRTFReverberationDirectional CuesDistance Cues
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
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  • 下載下載:62
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頭相關轉移函數(Head Related Transfer Function)為現今三度空間音效合成及處理之趨向。此函數描述來自不同方向的聲音事件經過聽者頭顱,外耳及身體的反射而在時域及頻域上的改變。一般而言,此函數以方向為變量,考慮在無迴響環境(Free Field)內的聲音事件當中的直接聲波(Direct Sound)之改變。本研究旨在量測此函數,並進一步考慮聲音事件的距離變化對於此函數的影響,以及在一般有迴響環境(Diffuse Field)的聲音事件中,非直接聲波(Indirect Sound)對於空間聽覺的交互影響。
本篇論文研究結果包括:一.於有迴響環境中建構一套完整並有效的HRTF量測程序。二.利用人頭模型建立遠場及近場頭相關轉移函數(Far Field and Near Field HRTF)及其所對應的雙耳空間脈衝響應函數(Binaural Room Impulse Response)資料庫,並討論來自不同方向及水平面上不同距離所產生的特徵變化。三.對於近場及遠場函數分別建構兩個圖像式使用者介面(Graphical User Interface)檢視量測結果,以探討其所描述的方向線索(Directional Cues)及距離線索(Distance Cues)。四.建立遠場及近場音效合成運算架構,利用遠場函數加入非直接聲波,雙耳角度差,殘響/直接聲波之聲壓比等條件,以探討利用遠場函數合成近身音源的可能性。

Head Related Transfer Function (HRTF) is one of the major topics in 3D audio processing. This function describes the change both in time and frequency domain when a sound event comes from different direction being reflected by head, pinna and torso of the listener. This study intends to measure the transfer function with considerations on the influence of the distance of sound source and the indirect sound in a common diffuse field.
The main purposes of this thesis are: (1) Construct a through and effective HRTF measurement process in a reverberant environment. (2) Measure both Far Field and Near Field HRTF and its associated Binaural Room Impulse Response (BRIR). Study the changes in directional and distance cues at different distance and direction in the horizontal plane. (3) Design and Implement two HRTF analysis and synthesis platforms with friendly Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) to use the content of database. (4) Propose two algorithms to synthesize Near Field and Far Field spatialized sound. Discuss the possibility of synthesizing the Near Field spatialized sound based on the Far Field HRTF with proper cues such as indirect sound, auditory parallax, and reverberation/direct sound pressure level.

Index ii
List of Figures iv
List of Tables vii
1. Introduction 1
2. Background Concepts of Spatial Hearing 3
2.1 Sound 4
2.1.1 Sound and Its Production 4
2.1.2 Sound Propagation in the Environment 4
2.1.3 Reverberation 6
2.2 Perceptions and Psychophysical Measurement 8
2.2.1 Perception 8
2.2.2 Psychophysics Measurement Model in Hearing 8
2.3 Psychoacoustical Theories about Spatial Hearing 9
2.3.1 Duplex Theory 9
2.3.2 Head Related Transfer Function Theory 13
2.3.3 Other Theories 15
2.3.4 Human Localization Ability 16
3. Previous HRTF Works and Measurements 18
3.1 Coordinate System 18
3.2 HRTF Definition 19
3.3 Aspects of Previous HRTF Measurements 21
3.3.1 Methods of System Identification 21
3.3.2 Measurement Environment, Signal Length and Post Processing 24
4. Proposed Measurements 27
4.1 Measurement Schematic, Environment, and Equipments 27
4.2 Measurement Procedures 36
4.2.1 Measurement System Setup 36
4.2.2 MLS Sequence pattern, Windowing and Post processing 38
4.2.3 Extracting Binaural Room Impulse Response 43
5. Experimental Results 47
5.1 Results of Far Field HRTF 49
5.1.1 Results of Single Direction 49
5.1.2 Results over the Horizontal Plane 52
5.1.3 Results over The Median Plane 55
5.1.4 Results over the Frontal Plane 59
5.2 Results of Near Field HRTF 62
5.2.1 Monaural and Binaural Intensity Difference over Distance 62
5.2.2 ITD and Spectrum Difference over Distance 64
5.2.3 Reverberation and Direct Sound Intensity Ratio Difference 70
5.3 Software Platforms with Graphical User Interface for HRTF Database 72
5.3.1 Far Field HRTF Database 72
5.3.2 Near Field HRTF Database GUI 74
5.4 Results of Sound Synthesis 80
6. Conclusions and Future Works 82
Bibliography 84

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