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研究生:趙傳珍
研究生(外文):Chuan-Jane Chao
論文名稱:矽技術電感及傳輸線之特性分析,設計及模型
論文名稱(外文):Analysis, Design, and Modeling of Inductor and Interconnect Transmission Line for Silicon Technology
指導教授:陳 明 哲王 是 琦
指導教授(外文):Ming-Jer ChenShyh-Chyi Wong
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:電子工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:134
中文關鍵詞:螺旋電感傳輸線耦合效應高頻特性高頻模型
外文關鍵詞:spiral inductortransmission linecoupling effecthigh-frequency characteristichigh-frequency model
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本論文針對矽技術積體電路之螺旋電感及傳輸線特性加以深入分析研究﹐首先﹐對單一螺旋電感之S參數、電感值及特性因子(Q)作完整的特性分析﹐並探討兩鄰近之共平面螺旋電感的信號耦合效應﹐最後﹐提出兩個新的等效電路模型來模擬前述的所有單一電感特性與兩鄰近之共平面螺旋電感的信號耦合效應。同時﹐我們也提出一些電感的設計改善方法﹐以提昇其Q的特性﹐並已驗證其可行性。其次﹐對傳輸線特性之分析研究﹐一個新的測試結構和方法已經被提出﹐並充分驗證其可行性及有效性﹐此測試方法是適用於決定傳輸線之一般電阻電容低頻模型的電性參數。對於高頻設計考量﹐這裡也討論並檢驗矽技術傳輸線之S參數測量、分析及相對應之參數萃取方法。

The characteristics of Si IC spiral inductors and transmission lines are analyzed. The complete characterization and new models of s-parameters, inductance value, and quality factor of a single spiral inductor, as well as coupling effect of coplanar spiral inductors are presented. Some enhancement methods by layout design are introduced and examined for improving the inductor performance. A novel methodology with correlative test structures is addressed for the determination of the conventional RC-based model regarding the interconnection parasitic parameters. Frequency-dependent characterizations and parameters extraction are carried out to investigate the Telegrapher’s equation in terms of transmission line model parameters (R, L, G, and C), loss, and coupling effects in silicon technologies.

摘 要 i
Abstract ii
Acknowledgments iii
Contents iv
Figure Captions vii
Table Captions xii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Overview 1
1.2 Dissertation Organization 2
References 4
Chapter 2 Spiral Inductor Design and Characterizations 5
2.1 Introduction 5
2.2 Experiment Setup and Test Structures 7
2.3 Spiral Inductor Design and Scaling Effect 8
2.3.1 Inductance 8
2.3.2 Quality Factor, Frequency at Qmax, and Self-Resonant Frequency 10
2.3.3 Material Effects and Temperature Dependence of PGS-Inductor 13
2.4 Isolation Characterization and Impact on Inductors 14
2.4.1 Q Improvement with Floating Well 14
2.4.2 Substrate Coupling Noise Effects of Inter-pads 16
2.5 Conclusion 18
Appendix A 19
References 20
Chapter 3 Coupling Characterizations for Spiral Inductors in Lossy Silicon Substrate 34
3.1 Introduction 34
3.2 Experiment Setup for the Inter-inductors Coupling Characterization 35
3.3 Coupling Characterizations for On-Chip Spiral Inductors 37
3.3.1 Inductance, Quality Factor, and Self-Resonant of Single Inductors 37
3.3.2 Coupling Noise Effects of Both Inductors 40
3.4 Conclusions 45
References 47
Chapter 4 Modeling of Spiral Inductors 57
4.1 Introduction 57
4.2 Spiral Inductor Model for Skin Effect 59
4.3 Macro Coupling Effect Model of Spiral Inductors 61
4.4 Conclusion 65
References 66
Chapter 5 Characterization and Determinations of Interconnection Parasitic Parameters 79
5.1 Introduction 79
5.2 Extraction Method for Parameters of RC-based Modeling 80
5.2.1 Overview 80
5.2.2 Test Structure and Extraction Methodology 82
5.2.3 Results and Discussion - Capacitance and Resistance Analysis 85
5.2.4 Results and Discussion - Delay Time Analysis 87
5.3 Characterization of S-parameter-based Interconnect Transmission Line 91
5.3.1 Experiment Setup 91
5.3.2 Results and Discussion 93
5.4 Conclusion 95
References 97
Chapter 6 Conclusions 117
Vita i
Publication List ii

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[2-5] J. A. Power, et al., "An investigation of on-chip spiral inductors on a 0.6 mm BiCMOS technology for RF applications," Proc. IEEE 1999 Int. Conf. on Microelectronic Test Structures, Vol. 12, pp. 18-23, March 1999.
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[2-7] Kenneth O, "Estimation methods for quality factors of inductors fabricated in silicon integrated circuit process technologies," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 33, No. 8, pp. 1249-1252, August 1998.
[2-8] J.-B. Yoon, et al., "High-performance three-dimensional on-chip inductors fabricated by novel micromachining technology for RF MMIC," in Dig. Symp. Microwave Theory Techniques, 1999.
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[2-19] A. Pun, et al., "Experimental results and simulation of substrate noise coupling via planar spiral inductor in RF ICs," Int. Electron Devices Meeting Tech. Dig., pp. 325-328, 1997.
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[2-25] S.-M. Yim, et al., “The effects of a ground shield on the characteristics and performance of spiral inductors,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 237-244, February 2002.
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[3-2] J. N. Burghartz, et al., "RF circuit design aspects of spiral inductors on silicon," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 33, No. 12, pp. 2028-2034, December 1998.
[3-3] J. N. Burghartz, et al., "Integrated RF components in a SiGe Bipolar technology," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 32, No. 9, pp. 1440-1445, September 1997.
[3-4] R. Gharpurey, et al., "Modeling and analysis of substrate coupling in integrated circuits," IEEE 1995 Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, pp. 125-128, 1995.
[3-5] M. Werthen, et al., "Investigation on MMIC inductor coupling effects," in Dig. Symp. Microwave Theory Techniques, 1997.
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[3-7] A. Samavedam, et al., "Design-oriented substrate noise coupling macromodels for heavily doped CMOS processes," ISCAS, pp. 218-221, 1999.
[3-8] P. Yue, et al., "On-chip spiral inductors with patterned ground shields for Si-Based RF IC's," VLSI Circuits Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, June 1997.
[3-9] P. Yue, et al., "On-chip spiral inductors with patterned ground shields for Si-Based RF IC's," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 33, No. 5, pp. 743-752, May 1998.
[3-10] C. J. Chao, et al., "Characterization and modeling of on-chip spiral inductors for Si RF IC's," IEEE Trans. on Semiconductor Manufacturing, Vol. 13, No. 1, Feb. 2002.
[3-11] A. Pun, et al., "Experimental results and simulation of substrate noise coupling via planar spiral inductor in RF ICs," Int. Electron Devices Meeting Tech. Dig., pp. 325-328, 1997.
[3-12] J. P. Raskin, et al., "Substrate crosstalk reduction using SOI technology," IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, Vol. 44, No. 12, pp. 2252-2261, December 1997.
[3-13] H. Hasegawa, et al., "Properties of microstrip line on Si-SiO2 system," IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. MTT-19, No. 11, pp. 869-881, 1971.
[3-14] Avant!, "Medici User's Manual," Version 4.1, July 1998.
[3-15] S.-M. Yim, et al., “The effects of a ground shield on the characteristics and performance of spiral inductors,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 237-244, February 2002.
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[4-2] J. R. Long, et al., “Modeling of monolithic inductors and transformers for silicon RFIC design,” IEEE MTT-S 1995 International Topical Symposium, pp. 129-134, 1995.
[4-3] J. A. Power, et al., "An investigation of on-chip spiral inductors on a 0.6 mm BiCMOS technology for RF applications," Proc. IEEE 1999 Int. Conf. on Microelectronic Test Structures, Vol. 12, pp. 18-23, March 1999.
[4-4] Ali M. Niknejad, et al., "Numerically stable Green function for modeling and analysis of substrate coupling in integrated circuits," IEEE Trans. Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 17, pp. 305-315, Apr. 1998.
[4-5] Kenneth O, "Estimation methods for quality factors of inductors fabricated in silicon integrated circuit process technologies," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 33, No. 8, pp. 1249-1252, August 1998.
[4-6] J. N. Burghartz, et al., "RF circuit design aspects of spiral inductors on silicon," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 33, No. 12, pp. 2028-2034, December 1998.
[4-7] H. Hasegawa, et al., "Properties of microstrip line on Si-SiO2 system," IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. MTT-19, No. 11, pp. 869-881, 1971.
[4-8] J.-B. Yoon, et al., "High-performance three-dimensional on-chip inductors fabricated by novel micromachining technology for RF MMIC," in Dig. Symp. Microwave Theory Techniques, 1999.
[4-9] J. N. Burghartz, "Silicon RF technology — The two generic approaches," in Proc. Eur. Solid-State Device Res. Conf., 1997.
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[4-15] R. D. Lutz, et al., "Modeling of spiral inductors on lossy substrates for RFIC applications," in Dig. Symp. Microwave Theory Techniques, 1998.
[4-16] I. Kasa, Microwave Integrated Circuits, 1991, Elsevier Science Publishers, Chap. 4.
[4-17] S.-M. Yim, T. Chen, and K. K. O, “ The effects of a ground shield on the characteristics and performance of spiral inductors,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 37, pp. 237-244, Feb.2002.
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