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研究生:廖芸立
研究生(外文):Yu-Li Liao
論文名稱:低速傳輸中TMN8巨集區塊層量化係數之調整
論文名稱(外文):TMN8 Macroblock Level Quantizer Adjustment under Low Bit Rate
指導教授:張文鐘
指導教授(外文):Wen-Thong Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:電信工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:68
中文關鍵詞:低速巨集區塊層量化係數
外文關鍵詞:TMN8Low bit rateQuantizerMacroblock
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低速影像對於位元分配適當與否十分敏感,本論文研究之重點在於如何盡量減少不必要的位元浪費,去把限定的位元數分配給攜帶許多影像資訊的巨集區塊(MB, macroblock)上。而要真正落實把位元分配到各個MB上,就在於如何調整每個MB所用的量化係數QP。QP變動直接受係數K和C所影響,我們發現TMN8中比重平均控制K和C的方法會造成變動較大之QP,和較多的未攜帶明度(Luminance)和彩度(Chrominance)資訊之MB數目。本論文研究TMN8之速率控制方法後,提出四種以簡單線性回歸(SLR, Simple Linear Regression)為基礎之調整方法來控制K和C。結果發現SLR I和SLR III求得之QP變化較為平穩,所需之標頭位元數(header bit)減少,並能提高攜帶明度彩度資訊的MB數目比例。

The bit allocation efficiency becomes increasingly significant in low bit rate video. In this work, we focus mainly on how to reduce header bit redundancy and allot bits to macroblocks that have rich luminance and chrominance information. It is achieved by adjusting the quantization parameter QP for every macroblocks. The variation of QP is highly related to parameter K and C. We find that the QP estimated from weighted averaged K and C will result in larger variation and more empty macroblocks. After studying the rate control method of TMN8, we proposed four estimating methods based on simple linear regression (SLR) schemes to adjust K and C. The results show that SLR I and SLR III can achieve less QP variation and less empty macroblocks.

Chapter 1.Introduction
1.1 Types of Rate Model
1.2 Types of Rate Control Method
1.2.1 Frame Layer Rate Control Method
1.2.2 Macroblock Level Rate Control Method
1.2.2.1 Optimal Mode Selection
1.2.2.2 Macroblock Level Quantizer Adaptation
Chapter 2.Rate Control Method of H.263 (TMN8)
2.1 Modeling Rate and Distortion in DCT video coding
2.2 Quantizer Optimization
2.3 Rate Control
2.3.1 Frame Skipping
2.3.2 Frame Level Rate Control
2.3.3 Macroblock Level Rate Control
2.4 Relationships Between Quantizer Parameters
2.4.1 Quantizer Optimization Range N
2.4.2 Rate Model Parameters: Bl,c, s, and Q
2.4.3 Distortion Model Parameters: D, a, and Q
2.4.4 QP, K, Variance and Obtained bit rate Bl,c
Chapter 3. Quantizer Parameter Optimization
3.1 QP Variation Reduction
3.1.1 The Relationship Between QP variation and Header Bits
3.1.2 Constant QP
3.2 Diminution in K Variation
3.2.1 Constant K
3.2.2 K with Less Variation
3.3 Estimating parameter K with SLR(Simple Linear Regression)
Chapter 4. Experimental Results and Comparison
4.1 K Comparison
4.2 DQUANT and MCBPC
4.3 Numbers of empty macroblocks (Bl,c=0) and PSNR
4.4 Comparison of Bit Allocation Results
4.5 The Difference Between Rate Model and the Actual Bit Rate
4.6 Modified Quantization Mode
Chapter 5. Conclusions
Annex
Reference

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[2] B. Tao, H. A. Peterson, and B. W. Dickinson, “A rate-quantization model for MPEG encoders,” in Proc. ICIP, Santa Barbara, CA. vol. I, pp. 338-341, Oct. 1997
[3] K. H. Yang, A. Jacquin, and N. S. Jayant, “A normalized rate-distortion model for H.263-compatible codecs and its application to quantizer selection,” in Proc. ICIP, Santa Barbara, CA. vol. II, pp.41-44, Oct. 1997
[4] T. Wiegand, M. Lightstone, D. Mukherjee, T. G. Campbell and S. K. Mitra, “Rate-distortion optimized mode selection for very low bit rate video coding and the emerging H.263 standard,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 6, pp. 182-190, Apr. 1996
[5] K. H. Yang and A. Jacquin, “Real time implementation of rate-distortion optimized coding mode selection for H.263 video coders,” 1998 Int. Conf., Image Processing, 1998, ICIP 98, Proc., vol. 2, pp. 387-390, Oct. 1998
[6] C. Perra, M. Pinna and D. D. Giusto, “H.263+ rate control at fixed objective quality,” CNIT Multi. Commun. Lab, Dept. Elect. Engineering, University of Cagliari, Italy, 2000.
[7] U. Bayazit, “Macroblock data classification and nonlinear bit count estimation for low delay H.263 rate control,” 1999 Int. Conf., Image Processing, 1999. ICIP 99. Proc. vol. 1, pp. 263-267, Oct. 1999
[8] W. Ding and B. Liu, “Rate control of MPEG video coding and recording by rate-quantization modeling,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Techno., vol. 6, pp. 12-19, Feb. 1996
[9] T. Chiang and Y.-Q. Zhang, “A new rate control scheme using quadratic rate distortion model,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Techno., vol. 7, pp. 246-250, Feb. 1997
[10] J. Ribas-Corbera and S. Lei, “Rate control in DCT video coding for low-delay communications,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 9, pp172-185, Feb 1999
[11] H. Song, J. Kim and C.-C. J. Kuo, “Real-time H.263+ frame rate control for low bit rate VBR video,” Circuits Syst. ISCA’99, Proceedings of the IEEE Inter. Symposium, vol. 4, pp. 307-310, June 1999
[12] T. Dong, S. Lansun and D. Zhanyun, “A bit-rate control method in video communication,” Intelligent Control and Automation, 2000. Proceedings of the 3rd World Congress on, vol. 4, pp. 2512-2516, July 2000
[13] J. Riba-Corbera and S.-M. Lei, “A frame-layer bit allocation for H.263+,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Techno., vol. 10, pp. 1154-1158, Oct. 2000
[14] ITU-T SG16/Q15, Video Test Model Number 8(TMN8), T. Gardos,
Ed., Sept. 1997.
[15] H. Song and C.-C. J. Kuo, “Rate control for low-bit-rate video via variable-encoding frame rates,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Techno.., vol. 11, pp. 512-521, April 2001

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