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研究生:張國安
研究生(外文):Kuo-An Chang
論文名稱:寬頻分碼多工系統中結合碼擷取及頻率估測演算法研究及其FPGA實現
論文名稱(外文):Joint Code Acquisition and Frequency Offset Etimation for W-CDMA System and Its FPGA Implementation
指導教授:吳文榕
指導教授(外文):Wen-Rong Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:電信工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:82
中文關鍵詞:數位匹配濾波器碼擷取管線化頻率估測可規劃邏輯陣列座標數位旋轉器
外文關鍵詞:Digital Matched FilterCode AcquisitionPipelineFrequency EstimationFPGACORDIC
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在CDMA系統中傳統碼擷取架構是使用數位匹配濾波器(DMF)達成初始碼同步。然而如果傳送端和接收端的震盪器產生頻率偏移,則此數位匹配濾波器輸出效能將會衰減。此論文中,我們提出碼擷取及頻率估測結合的架構來解決W-CDMA系統中的碼擷取問題。第一步我們將DMF切分成數塊子匹配濾波器,並且計算出這些子匹配濾波器輸出的相關函數,使用此相關函數,即使在高頻率偏移下還是可獲得碼同步,所提出的架構不需使用到乘法器故運算複雜度低。達到碼擷取之後我們再利用相關函數估測頻率偏移。我們也提出一彈性的硬體架構可在碼擷取時間及複雜度方面做取捨。最後採用FPGA設計流程實現所提出的方法。

Conventional code acquisition in a CDMA system uses digital matched filter (DMF) to obtain initial synchronization. However, if the frequency offset between the transmitter and receiver oscillator exists, the DMF performance will degrade. In this thesis, we consider the code acquisition problem in a W-CDMA system. We propose a joint code acquisition and frequency estimation scheme that can effective solve the problem. First, we divide DMF into sub-filters and then compute correlations among the sub-filter outputs. Using the correlations, we are able to acquire the incoming code even in a large frequency offset scenario. The proposed method is multiplication-free and thus the computational complexity is low. After acquisition, we use the correlation functions to estimate the frequency offset. We also propose a flexible hardware architecture that can have a tradeoff between the complexity and the acquisition time. Finally, the proposed method is implemented using a FPGA design flow.

中文摘要..................................................... i
Abstract.................................................... ii
誌謝 .......................................................iii
目錄 .......................................................iii
表目錄 ......................................................vi
圖目錄 .....................................................vii
第一章 緒論 ..................................................1
1.1前言 ......................................................1
1.2 IMT-2000的目標與要求 .....................................3
1.3 3GPP系統特色 .............................................4
1.4論文導論 ..................................................6
第二章 W-CDMA 實體層規格簡介 .................................8
2.1 傳輸頻道(Transport Channels) .............................9
2.1.1 共用傳輸頻道 ...........................................9
2.1.2 專用傳輸頻道 ...........................................9
2.2 實體頻道(Physical channel) ..............................10
2.2.1 上鏈實體頻道 ..........................................10
2.2.2 下鏈實體頻道 ..........................................14
2.3 展頻與調變 ..............................................17
2.3.1 通道碼(channelization codes) ..........................17
2.3.2 攪亂碼(scrambling code) ...............................19
第三章 DS-CDMA系統傳統碼擷取技術 ............................24
3.1 傳統碼擷取技術 ..........................................24
3.1.1單一區塊串列搜尋技術(single dwell serial search technique)...................................................24
3.1.2 多重區塊串列搜尋技術(multi-level serial search dwell) .25
3.1.3 並列搜尋 (parallel search) ............................25
3.1.4 混合搜尋(hybrid search)[22] ...........................26
3.1.5 匹配濾波器碼擷取(matched filter code acquisition) .....29
3.2 適應性濾波器估測搜尋[8][9] ..............................30
3.2.1 系統模型(system Model) ................................30
3.2.2 系統描述(system Description) ..........................30
3.3 DFT碼擷取技術[14] .......................................33
第四章 結合碼擷取及頻率估測新架構 ...........................38
4.1 新提出碼擷取架構 ........................................38
4.2 M&M頻率估測架構 .........................................41
4.3 系統模擬(system simulation) .............................43
第五章FPGA設計 ..............................................54
5.1 FPGA簡介 ................................................54
5.2 管線化架構FPGA設計 ......................................55
5.2.1 部分數位匹配濾波器(DMF) ...............................57
5.2.2 利用Bussgang’s定理計算自身關聯函數元件 ...............60
5.2.3 頻率估測器 ............................................62
5.2.3.1 CORDIC技術[29] ......................................63
5.3 混合模式架構FPGA設計 ....................................67
5.3.1 系統搜尋策略 ..........................................67
5.3.2 FPGA硬體設計 ..........................................69
5.4 管線化、串列式整體FPGA實現及比較 ........................70
第六章 結論 .................................................76
參考文獻 ....................................................77

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