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研究生:魏宏全
研究生(外文):HCWEI
論文名稱:使用相關函數來偵測雙邊對話
論文名稱(外文):Cross-Correlation-based
指導教授:謝世福
指導教授(外文):Dr.S.F.Hsieh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:電信工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:66
中文關鍵詞:相關函數雙邊對話
外文關鍵詞:cross-correlationdouble-talkdetector
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對於迴音消除而言,當雙邊同時對話時,會使得一些採用誤差迴授的適應性濾波器如LMS無法追蹤房間的脈衝響應。我們在本篇論文中,將採用相關函數的偵測方法來解決雙邊談話的問題,此種方法是藉由i) 麥克風、誤差訊號之間以及ii) 麥克風、迴音消除的輸出訊號之間的相關係數與參考門檻比較判斷是否雙邊對話發生,此雙邊對話的偵測使得迴音消除有良好的運作,我們會推導相關函數的收斂平均值、偵測門檻以及延遲的理論式。為了使相關函數的方法更能適用於實際的語音環境,我們提出了變動的參考門檻方法來更有效的偵測雙邊對話。對於鑑別房間響應改變與雙邊對話,我們也提出了一個修改過的相關函數方法,於後面的電腦模擬將會證實我們的推導以及提出的方法。

In the adaptive acoustic echo cancellation, double-talk will make the echo canceller fail to trace the room impulse response. In this thesis, the cross-correlations between i) the microphone input and the estimated echo, and ii) the microphone input and the AEC error, are used to judge whether double-talk arises. We will derive the theoretical cross-correlations, detection thresholds, and the detection delays. For practical nonstationary speech signals, we propose the Variant threshold method to detect the double-talk more efficiently. To distinguish the echo-path change from double-talk, we also propose a Modified-cross-correlation method. Computer simulations will validate our derivations and proposed methods.

Contents
1 Introduction 1
2 The Cross-Correlation algorithm for Double-talk detection 5
2.1 Double talk in echo canceller 6
2.2 Cross-Correlation DTD 8
2.3 Analysis of the Cross-Correlation DTD 13
2.4 Training Procedure 20
2.4.1 and 21
2.4.2 and 22
2.4.3 Thresholds of and 23
2.5 Step-Size Adjustment 24
2.6 Filter Coefficients-Restore 25
3 Detection delays 26
3.1 State transition 27
3.1.1 The DTD from ST to DT 27
3.1.2 The DTD from DT to ST 33
3.2 DTD delay issue 37
3.3 False detection of the DTD method 40
4 Two modified methods
4.1 Variant threshold 41
4.2 Modified Cross-Correlation 43
5 Computer Simulations 45
5.1 Simulation parameters and the echo impulse response 46
5.2 The Cross-Correlation 47
5.3 Detection Delays 51
5.4 To combat the detection delays 53
5.5 Variable threshold 57
5.6 A modified cross-correlation for distinguishing DT from path variation
59
6 Conclusions 63
Bibliography 65

Bibliography
[1] S. Haykin, “Adaptive Filter Theory,” 3rd Edition. Upper saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1996.
[2] P. C. Yip and D. M. Etter, “An Adaptive Multiple Echo Canceller for Slowly Time-Varying Echo Paths,” IEEE Trans. On Common, vol. 38, no.10, pp. 1693-1698, Oct.1990.
[3] Asharif, M.R.; Shimabukuro, A.; Hayashi, T.; Yamashita, K.” Expanded CLMS algorithm for double-talk echo cancelling” IEEE International Conference, Volume: 1, 1999 Page(s): 998 -1002 vol.1
[4] Hua Ye, Bo-Xiu Wu, “A New Double-Talk Detection Algorithm Based on the Orthogonality Theorem,” IEEE Trans. On Communications, vol.39, no.11, pp.1542-1545, Nov.1991.
[5] Seon Joon Park; Chum Gun Cho; Chungyong Lee; Dae Hee Youn“On integrating acoustic echo and noise cancellation systems for hands-free telephony”Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 2001. Proceedings. 2001 IEEE International Conference on, Volume: 2, 2001 Page(s): 961 -964 vol.2
[6] J. Benesy, D. R. Morgan, and J. H. Cho, “A new class of double talk detectors based on cross-correlation,”IEEE Trans. On Speech and Audio Processing, Vol.8, No.2, pp.168-172, March 2000. ernational Conference on, Volume: 2, 2001 Page(s): 961 -964 vol.2
[7] V. Turbin, A. Gilloire, and P. Scalart, “Comparison of three post-filtering algorithms for residual acoustic echo reduction,” in Proc. IEEE Intl. Conf. Acoust., Speech, Sig. Proc., 1997, pp 307-310.
[8] D. S Yeh, “Study on Adaptive Acoustic Echo Cancellation,”NCTU Master Thesis, June 1995.
[9] Si Ho Kim; Hong Seok Kwon; Keun Sung Bae; Kyung Jin Byun; Kyung Soo Kim “Performance improvement of double-talk detection algorithm in the acoustic echo canceller” Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 2001. Proceedings. 2001 IEEE International Conference on, Volume: 5, 2001 Page(s): 3249 -3252 vol.5
[10]J. C. Jeng, “Application of the FIR Filter to Acoustic Echo Cancellation,” NCTU Master Thesis, June 1995.
[11]J. F. Doherty, R. Porayth, “A Robust Echo Canceller for Acoustic Environments,”IEEE Trans. Analog and Digital Signal Processing, vol.44, No.5, pp389-396, May 1997.

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