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研究生:張家豪
研究生(外文):Chang Chia-Hao
論文名稱:基於分波多工/次載波多工之無線-光纖網路架構
論文名稱(外文):The WDM/SCM Based Wireless-over-Fiber Network Architecture
指導教授:高銘盛
指導教授(外文):Kao Ming-Seng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:電信工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:81
中文關鍵詞:分波多工次載波多工無線光纖光拍差干擾
外文關鍵詞:WDMSCMwirelessfiberOBI
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本論文提出一種基於分波多工/次載波多工的無線-光纖網路架構。我們結合無線通訊與光通訊的優點,以建構一個簡單、高頻寬效能、富有彈性、強健的網路自癒功能與低成本的光纖網路。此網路有三層架構 -- 底層網路由無線擷取點相互連成環狀架構,經特殊的串接光塞取收發器以消除光拍差干擾現象。透過預先規劃的光波長與電波頻率配置,不同的網路裝置能簡單有效率的將資訊傳往上層網路。中層網路主要負責光波長的選擇與路由規劃並可擴大整個網路的使用範圍。上層網路負責將所有上傳的波長作解調並進一步轉換資訊格式傳至最終目的地或是離最終的目的地最近的網路。最後,我們根據網路架構做簡單的效能分析。基於以上的優點,我們提出的分波多工/次載波多工的無線-光纖網路架構將是個未來光纖到家服務應用的良好選擇。

We propose a WDM/SCM wireless-over-fiber network architecture. This architecture combines the advantages of optical WDM/SCM technologies and wireless technologies to construct a simple, high flexibility, robust self-healing functions, more bandwidth efficiency and low cost FTTH network. The proposed WDM/SCM wireless-over-fiber network is a three-level network. In the bottom level many wireless access points (WAPs) are connected as a ring topology, which can avoid the Optical Beat Interference (OBI) problem by a special cascaded add/drop transceiver (CAT) structure. The middle level can perform wavelength selection, wavelength routing and network expanding functions. The top level manages wavelengths transmitted to and from the lower network levels, which can bridge and convert these data format to match the other networks operation. Finally, we present a simple system analysis for our network. Owing to these advantages incur from wireless and optical technologies, the WDM/SCM wireless-over-fiber network that we propose will be a good candidate for the future FTTH system applications.

Contents
List of Figures…………………………………………………………6
List of Tables………………………………………………………………8
Chapter 1 Introduction................................................9
1.1 Overview………………………………………………9
1.1.1 Optical Communication Overview……………………………………9
1.1.2 Optical Multiplexing Technologies Overview………………………………9
1.1.3 Wireless-over-Fiber Systems Overview ……………………………………11
1.2 Organization……………………………………………………12
1.3 References of Chapter 1………………………………………12
Chapter 2 Optical Networks and Wireless-over-Fiber Systems………15
2.1 Current Optical Network Issues…………………………………………………15
2.2 WDM Network Evolution and Development………………………………………18
2.2.1 Evolution of WDM Networks………………………………………………18
2.2.2 The Trend of Future WDM Networks Development…………………………21
2.2.3 Comparison of Optical Multiplexing Technologies……………………………22
2.3 Wireless-over-Fiber Systems.………………………………………………………23
2.4 Impairments in Wireless-over-fiber Systems………………………………………24
2.5 References of Chapter 2……………………………………………………………27
Chapter 3 WDM/SCM Wireless-over-Fiber Network……………………31
3.1 Architecture………………………………………………………31
3.1.1 Overview…………………………………………32
3.1.2 Architecture Description……………………………………………………33
3.2 The Network Survivability and Self-healing………………………………………42
3.2.1 Link Failure in the Main Ring…………………………………………………43
3.2.2 Link Failure in the Middle Ring………………………………………………47
3.3 Wavelength Assignment Consideration…………………………………………49
3.4 Summary…………………………………………………54
3.5 References of Chapter 3……………………………………………………………59
Chapter 4 Performance Analysis…………………………………61
4.1 Performance Analysis for Downstream Direction……………………………………61
4.1.1 The Analysis of Symbol Error Rate……………………………………………61
4.1.2 The Analysis of CNR and System Capacity……………………………………65
4.1.3 The Analysis of Upstream Direction…………………………………………73
4.2 References of Chapter 4……………………………………………………………75
Chapter 5 Discussion and Conclusion………………………………77
5.1 Discussion………………………………77
5.2 Conclusion…………………………………………………………80

References of Chapter 1
[1] John Powers, “An Introduction to Systems,” Chapter 1 pp. 1~8, published by McGRAW-HILL, 1997.
[2] 龔祖德, “光纖通訊技術,” 第一章 pp. 1~9,全華 出版, 民86.
[3] Mark Kuznetsov, Nan M. Froberg, Scoot R. Henion, Hemonth G. Rao, Jeff Korn, Kristin A., Eytan H. Modiano and Vincent W. S. Chan, “A Next-Generation Optical Regional Access Network,” IEEE Communications Magazine, Volume: 38 Issue: 1, pp. 66~72, Jan. 2000.
[4] Victor Mizrahi, Stephen Alexander, Joseph Berthold, Steve Chaddick, Wesley Jones, “The Future of WDM Systems,” Integrated Optics and Optical Fibre Communications, 11th International Conference on, and 23rd European Conference on Optical Communications (Conf. Publ. No.: 448) , Volume: 1, pp. 137~141, 1997.
[5] P. O. Iannone, K. C. Reichmann, N J. Frigo, A. H. Gnauck, and L.H. Spiekman, “A flexible metro WDM ring using wavelength-independent subscriber equipment to share bandwidth,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2001, Volume: 4, pp. 281~283, 2000.
[6] Frank Ruhl and Trevor Anderson, “Cost-Effective Metro WDM Network Architectures,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit 2001, OFC 2001, Volume: 3, pp. WL1 -1-3, 2001.
[7] Brian E. Lemoff, Lewis B. Aronson, and Lisa A. Buckman, “Low —cost compact WDM components for LAN applications,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference 1999, and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication. OFC/IOOC '99. Technical Digest, vol.1, pp. 78, 1999.
[8] T. E. Darcie and G. E. Bodeep, “Lightwave subcarrier CATV transmission system,” Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on , Volume: 38 Issue: 5, pp. 524~533, May 1990.
[9] T. E. Darcie, “Subcarrier multiplexing for lightwave networks and video distribution systems,” Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on , Volume: 8 Issue: 7, PP. 1240~1248, Sept. 1990.
[10] Winston I. Way, “Subcarrier Multiplexed Lightwave System Design Considerations for Subscriber Loop Applications,” Lightwave Technology, Journal of , Volume: 7 Issue: 11, pp. 1806~1818, Nov. 1989.
[11] H. Ogawa, P. David, and Y. Kamiya, “Fiber optic links for microwave and millimeter-wave transmission,” IEICE Tech. Rep., OCS91-8, May 1991.
[12] R. D. Carver, “Millimeter-wave radio for broadband local access,” Proc. ICC’91, pp. 1187—1190, June 1991.
[13] A. A. M. Saleh, “ Fundamental limit on number of channels in subcarrier multiplexed lightwave CATV system,” Electron. Lett., vol. 25, pp. 776~777, June 8, 1989.
[14] N. J. Frigo, M. R. Philips, and G. E. Bodeep, “Clipping distortion in lightwave CATV systems: Models, simulations and measurements,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 11, pp. 138~146, Jan. 1993.
References of Chapter 2
[1] L. Wuttisittikulkij and M. J. OMahony, “Design of WDM network using a multiple ring approach”, IEEE GLOBECOM’ 97, Vol.1 pp. 551-555, 1997.
[2] L. G. Kazovsky and P. T. Poggiolini, “STARNET: A Multi-gigabit-per-second Optical LAN Utilizing a Passive WDM Star,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 11, pp 1009-1027, 1993
[3] A. E. Kamal and H. S. Hassanein, “Throughput analysis of WDM-based dual-bus local area networks,” IEEE International Performance, Computing and Communications Conference, pp. 426-432, 1999.
[4] T. Y. Chung and D. P. Agrawal, “Design and analysis of multidimensional Manhattan street networks,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol.41, pp. 295-298, 1993.
[5] Casimer DeCusatis, Eric Maass, Darrin P. Clement and Ronald C. Lasky, ”HandBook of Fiber Optic Data Communication,” Academic Press, 1998.
[6] Hakki, B. w., F. Bosch, and S. Lumish., “Dispersion and noise of 1.3 micron lasers in microwave digital systems,” IEEE J. Lightwave Tech. Vol. 7, 804-812, 1989.
[7] Ning Chen, Yoshiaki, and Toshio Nojima, “Expanding the Mobile Radio Coverage of Multi-terminal Serial Optical Link Using Wavelength Division Multiplexing,” 2000 2nd International Conference on Microwave and Millimeter Wave Technology Proceedings, 2000.
[8] Krishna M. Sivalingam and Suresh Subramaniam, “Optical WDM Networks─Principles and Practice,” published by Kluwer Acadamic, 2000.
[9] Iannone,P.P., Reichmann, K.C. Smiljanic, A. Frigo, N.J. Gnauck,A.H. Spiekman, L.H., Derosier, R.M., “A transparent WDM network featuring shared virtual rings,” Lightwave Technology, Journal of, Volume: 18 Issue: 12, pp. 1955 -1963, Dec 2000
[10] Sabella R., and Rohr A., “Wireless broadband access systems using fiber links: a comparison between IF and RF transport techniques,” LEOS '99. IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 1999 12th Annual Meeting , Volume: 2, pp. 597 -598, 1999.
[11] Nirmalathas A., Lim C., Novak D., and Waterhouse R., “Optical interfaces without light sources for base-station designs in fiber-wireless systems incorporating WDM,” Microwave Photonics, 1999. MWP '99. International Topical Meeting on , vol.1, pp. 119~122, 1999.
[12] G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and C. Lim, “A Millimeter-Wave Full-Duplex Fiber-Radio Star-Tree Architecture Incorporating WDM and SCM,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , Volume: 10 Issue: 11, pp. 1650~1652, Nov. 1998.
[13] A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, C. Lim, R.B. Waterhouse, and D. Casleford, “Fiber Networks for Wireless Applications,” Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 2000 Annual Meeting. LEOS 2000. 13th Annual Meeting. IEEE, Volume: 1, 2000.
[14] Sabella R., and Rohr A., “Wireless broadband access systems using fiber links: a comparison between IF and RF transport techniques,” LEOS '99. IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 1999 12th Annual Meeting , Volume: 2, pp. 597 -598, 1999.
[15] Nirmalathas A., Lim C., Novak D., and Waterhouse R., “Optical interfaces without light sources for base-station designs in fiber-wireless systems incorporating WDM,” Microwave Photonics, 1999. MWP '99. International Topical Meeting on , vol.1, pp. 119~122, 1999.
[16] H. Izadpanah, D. J. Gregoire, F. A. Dolezal, W. Ng, D. Yap and G. Tangonan HRL Laboratories, LLC, “An Integrated Fiber Optics / Broadband Wireless Access Demonstrator for The Next Generation Internet (NGI) Network Extension,” Microwave Photonics, MWP 2000 International Topical Meeting on, p. 172 -174, 2000.
[17] R. E. Schuh, “ Hybrid Fiber Radio for Second and Third Generation Wireless System,” Microwave Photonics, 1999. MWP '99. International Topical Meeting on , vol. 1, pp. 213-216, 1999.
[18] K. Morita, H. Ohtsuka, “The New Generation of Wireless Communications Based on Fiber-Radio Technologies,” IEICE TRANS. COMMUN., Vol. E76-B, NO. 9 SEPT., 1993.
[19] A. A. M. Saleh, “Fundamental Limit on Number of Channel in Subcarrier-Multiplexed Lightwave CATV system,” Electronics Letter, Vol. 25, No. 12, June, 1989.
[20] K. Alameh and R. A. Minasian, “Ultimate Limits of Subcarrier Multiplexed Lightwave Transmission,” Electronucs Letters, Vol. 27, No. 14, July, 1991.
[21] M. R. Phillips and T. E. Darcie, “Numerical Simulation of Clipping-Induced Distortion in Analog Lightwave System,” IEEE TRANS. PHOTONICS TECH. LETTER., Vol. 3, No. 12, DEC., 1991.
[22] Theo Muys, “Clipping Induced Distortion in Lightwave CATV Transmission Systems: Numerical Simulation and Experiments,” Communications, 1995. ICC '95 Seattle, 'Gateway to Globalization', 1995 IEEE International Conference on, Volume: 1, Page 596 -600, vol.1, 1995
[23] Froidure, J.-C.; Megret, P.; Moeyaert, V.; Lamquin, M.; Blondel, M.; Lebrun, C.; Goerg, P.; Tasia, T., “Experimental and theoretical study of intrinsic and clipping-induced distortions in CATV DFB laser diodes,” Electrotechnical Conference, 1996. MELECON '96, 8th Mediterranean, Vol. 1, Page 413-416, 1996.
[24] Cedric F. Lam, “A Simplified Model for Estimating the Capacity Limit of an Optical Link in Transporting Multichannel,” IEEE Photo. Tech. Letters, Vol 12, No. 11, November, 2000.
[25] Bezard Razavi, “RF Microelectronics,” page 121, published by Prentice Hall, 1998.
[26] Gordon L. Stuber, “ Principles of Mobile Communication,” page 16, published by Kluwer Academic, 1996.
[27]T. E. Darcie, and G. E. Bodeep, “Lightwave subcarrier CATV transmission systems”, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 524~533, 1990.
References of Chapter 3
[1] A. Fumagalli, I. Cerutti, M. Tacca, F. Masetti, R. Jagannathan, and S. Alagar, “Survivable networks based on optical routing and WDM self-healing ring,” INFOCOM ’99. Eighteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communi- cation Societies, vol. 2, pp. 726~733, 1999.
[2] L. Wuttisittikulkij and M. J. OMahony, “Design of WDM network using a multiple ring approach”, IEEE GLOBECOM’ 97, Vol.1 pp. 551-555, 1997.
[3] Desem, C., “Optical interference in subcarrier multiplexed systems with multiple optical carriers,” Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on, Volume: 8, Issue: 7, pp. 1290 -1295, 1990.
[4] Wood, T.H., Shankaranarayanan, N.K., “Operation of a passive optical network with subcarrier multiplexing in the presence of optical beat interference,” Lightwave Technology, Journal of, Volume: 11 Issue: 10 Part: 1, pp. 1632 -1640, Oct. 1993.
[5] Feldman, R.D., Wood, T.H., Raybon, G., Austin, R.F., “Effect of optical beat interference on the dynamic range of a subcarrier multiple access passive optical network using Fabry-Perot lasers,” Lightwave Technology, Journal of, Volume: 14 Issue: 5, pp. 711 -715, May 1996.
[6] Wen-Piao Lin, Ming-Seng Kao, and Sien Chi, “The Modified Star-Ring Architecture for High-Capacity Subcarrier Multiplexed Passive Optical Networks,” IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 32-39, January, 2001.
[7] “ The 802.11a WLAN Standard,” IEEE, 1999.
References of Chapter 4
[1] Alouini, M.-S., Goldsmith, A.J., “A unified approach for calculating error rates of linearly modulated signals over generalized fading channels,” Communications, IEEE Transactions on, Volume: 47 Issue: 9, pp. 1324 -1334, Sept. 1999.
[2] Shayesteh, M.G., Aghamohammadi A., “On the error probability of linearly modulated signals on frequency-flat Ricean, Rayleigh, and AWGN channels,” Communications, IEEE Transactions on , Volume: 43 Issue: 2, Part: 3 , pp. 1454 -1466, Feb.-March-April 1995
[3] A. A. M. Saleh, “Fundamental Limit on Number of Channel in Subcarrier-Multiplexed Lightwave CATV system,” Electronics Letter, Vol. 25, No. 12, June, 1989.
[4] N. J. Frigo, M. R. Philips, and G. E. Bodeep, “Clipping distortion in lightwave CATV systems: Models, simulations and measurements,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 11, pp. 138~146, Jan. 1993.
[5] J. Mazo, “Asymptotic distortion spectrum of clipped, D.C.-biased Gaussian Noise,” IEEE Trans. Communication., vol. 40, pp. 1339-1344, 1992.
[6] Cedric F. Lam, “A Simplified Model for Estimating the Capacity Limit of an Optical Link in Transporting Multichannel M-QAM Signals,” IEEE Photo. Tech. Letters, Vol 12, No. 11, November, 2000.
[7] M. Lecours, I.Y. Chouinard, G.Y. Delisle, and J. Roy, “Statistical Modeling of the Received Signal Envelop in a Mobile Radio Channel,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., VOL. vt-37, PP. 204~212, 1988.
[8] Henry L. Bertoni, “Radio Propagation for Modern Wireless Systems,” publiched by Prentice Hall PTR, pp.18, 2000.
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