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研究生:邱宏昇
研究生(外文):Hung-Sheng Chiu
論文名稱:資訊系統開發技術知識的發展架構
論文名稱(外文):The Knowledge Architecture of Information System Development Technology
指導教授:楊千楊千引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chyan Yang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:經營管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:87
中文關鍵詞:資訊系統開發元件系統應用系統再用架構
外文關鍵詞:Information System DevelopmentComponent SystemApplication SystemReusable Architecture
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對軟體開發者而言,了解資訊系統開發技術知識累積與重用的意義,尤其是前一階段活動的知識累積與重用能有助於後一階段的活動,真是不知道有多重要!
老實說,很少軟體開發者能真正了解軟體開發活動為什麼是依某種的先後順序,但我們卻錯誤的深信自己了解軟體開發活動先後順序的本質。對前一階段活動的知識累積與重用能有助於後一階段的活動軟體開發活動的正確解釋,即使只解釋了一部份,也是十分難得的,甚至對一些最平常的軟體開發活動的順序亦然。
本文所說明的研究內容,主要是為了解決傳統的系統開發生命週期模式與往復漸進式的軟體開發活動順序間的兩難。雖然這個活動非常的平常而普遍,但是解釋起來卻一點也不平常。
本研究以完形學派(Gestalt School)「整體大於部份相加的總和」的觀點,以資訊工業策進會承接經濟部的軟體再用技術研發計畫為案例,以系統開發活動作為資訊系統開發技術知識累積與重用的觀察對象,研究結果發現,傳統的系統開發生命週期模式與反復漸近模式當以層次式架構呈現時,其軟體再用是累進的;亦即傳統的系統開發生命週期模式是建構在反復漸近模式之上。同時還發現藉由軟體元件的再用與累積所形成的軟體元件再用架構,是資訊系統開發所需的穩定次級系統,而在穩定次級系統上開發資訊系統,軟體再用率可以提高及軟體再用的開始時間點可以提前。
在軟體元件再用架構的基礎上來開發資訊系統,業務處理流程(Business Process),頁面流程(Page Flow),業務元件流程(BO Flow)及畫面建構流程(Page Construction Flow)等四種流程可以銜接元件系統與應用系統間的缺口,迅速建構元件式資訊系統,是一套有效的資訊系統開發技術知識的發展架構。
It’s important to a software developer that understanding how to accumulate and reuse the information technology developing knowledge. In General, only few software developers can realize what kinds of sequence they use while doing software develop activity. And most of us consider that we know the essence of the sequence, in fact, we are wrong. The knowledge ‘s accumulating and reuse of previous activity is helpful to the next is true even in the common sequence of software developing activity.
This research is trying to solve the difficulties between traditional system developing life cycle model and the incremental and iteration software developing activities. In the viewpoint of Gestalt School─the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, and taking the case of Information Industry Institute’s software reuse technology research plan , we took the system developing activity as the observed target of IT knowledge’s accumulation and reuse. In the result we find that when the traditional system developing life cycle model and the back-and —forth and gradual model were showed up in a layer structure type, the reusing of software was progressive. It means that traditional system developing life cycle model is build upon the back-and-forth and gradual model. We can use the software component reuse structure formed by the software components’ reuse and accumulating as the secondary stable system for the need of information developing system. To develop information system upon a secondary stable system can raise the software reuse rate and advance the time of starting to reuse software.
To develop information system in a base of software components reuse structure can engage four processes─Business Process, Page Flow, BO Flow, and Page construction Flow with both component system and application system. It can build a component based information system fast and is an effective developing structure of information system developing technology knowledge.
Key Words: Information System Development;Component System;Application System;Reusable Architecture
目錄
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 viii
第一章 導論 1
1.1 研究背景與研究主題的形成 1
1.2 研究目的 3
1.3 討論範圍 4
1.4 研究方法 5
1.5 章節安排 7
第二章 文獻回顧與技術現狀 8
2.1 資訊系統的演進 8
2.2 新興的軟體元件技術與網路服務(Web Services)運算架構 11
2.2.1 軟體元件技術 11
2.2.2 網路服務(Web Services)運算 14
2.2.3 資訊系統開發策略 18
第三章 基本模型 23
3.1 傳統資訊系統開發方法 23
3.2 以軟體元件開發軟體系統的內涵 24
3.3 資訊系統開發活動順序的基本模型 25
3.3.1 傳統的生命週期模型 26
3.3.2 往復漸進模型 27
3.4 資訊系統開發技術知識的發展架構 27
3.4.1 軟體元件再用架構 27
3.4.2 以多階層(n-tier)應用架構隔離可能的變動影響 30
3.4.3 以XML訂定文件交換格式 32
3.4.4 以企業流程組裝軟體元件 32
第四章 資訊系統開發技術知識的發展架構 34
4.1 UML重要圖形及其所代表的意義說明 34
4.1.1 概述 34
4.1.2 軟體架構 34
4.1.3 圖形 37
4.2 元件系統 44
4.2.1 J2EE 的三層式架構(3-Tier Architecture) 44
4.2.2 應用的實體架構(Physical Architecture of Applications) 46
4.2.3 應用的邏輯架構(Logical Architecture of Applications) 47
4.2.4 以J2EE為基礎發展NeWPlatform(NeWPlatform with J2EE) 50
4.2.5 頁面流程(Page Flow) 51
4.2.6 業務元件流程(BO Flow) 52
4.2.7 頁面建構流程(Page Construction Flow) 53
4.3 在元件系統上分析應用系統 55
4.3.1 使用案例圖(Use Case Diagram) 55
4.3.2 人機互動圖(Interactive Diagram) 58
4.3.3 主要摘錄(Key Abstraction) 62
4.3.4 高階類別圖(High-Level Class Diagram) 64
4.3.5 高階次序圖(High-Level Sequence Diagram) 65
4.4 在元件系統上設計應用系統 66
4.4.1 範疇類別(Boundary Class) 67
4.4.2 控制類別(Control Class) 69
4.4.3 實體類別(Entity Class) 72
第五章 結論 78
5.1 討論 78
5.2 結論 81
5.3 後續研究方向 82
參考文獻 83
表目錄
表 1.4.1兩種個案分析策略差異比較 7
表 4.1.1 UML的重要圖形 37
圖目錄
圖 1.1.1 軟體元件架構的演進 1
圖 2.1.1 全球資訊網應用程式架構 10
圖 2.1.2 以網路應用技術的發展趨勢 11
圖 2.2.1元件與物件之關係 12
圖 2.2.2元件化軟體的演化 13
圖 2.2.3網路服務(Web Services)之組成架構 15
圖 2.2.4 網路服務的情境(A Web Service Scenario) 16
圖 2.2.5我國軟體產業SWOT分析-網路服務(Web Services)技術 17
圖 3.2.1軟體再用的六個類型 25
圖 3.3.1元件式軟體系統開發階段 25
圖 3.3.2元件式軟體系統開發程序 26
圖 3.4.1 軟體元件再用架構的系統形成圖 29
圖 3.4.2 軟體元件再用架構的系統操作圖 30
圖 3.4.3軟體元件再用架構 33
圖 4.1.1 UML模型觀點 35
圖 4.1.2行為者與使用案例(Actor and Use Case)關係圖 38
圖 4.1.3使用個案圖(Use Case Diagram) 38
圖 4.1.4類別圖(Class Diagram) 39
圖 4.1.5 循序圖(Sequence Diagram) 40
圖 4.1.6活動獎態圖 40
圖 4.1.7活動狀態(Activity States) 41
圖 4.1.8分支元素(Branch Element) 41
圖 4.1.9分支與合併(Forking and Joining) 42
圖 4.1.10渠道(Swimlanes) 43
圖 4.1.11狀態圖(State Diagram) 44
圖 4.2.1 J2EE之3層式架構 45
圖 4.2.2 J2EE三層式架構(J2EE 3-Tier Architecture) 46
圖 4.2.3 企業的實體架構(Physical Architecture of Enterprise) 47
圖 4.2.4應用系統的邏輯架構(Logical Architecture of Application system) 48
圖 4.2.5 物件與元件的層次式架構(Layer Architecture of Objects and Components) 49
圖 4.2.6應用系統、NeWPlatform、J2EE間的層次式架構(Layer Architecture of Applications、NeWPlatform and J2EE) 50
圖 4.2.7 頁面流程(Page Flow) 51
圖 4.2.8 頁面流程架構設計(Page Flow Architecture Design) 52
圖 4.2.9 業務元件流程(Business Object Flow) 53
圖 4.2.10 業務流程架構設計(BO Flow Architecture Design) 53
圖 4.2.11 頁面建構流程(Page Construction Flow) 54
圖 4.2.12頁面建構流程架構設計(Page Construction Flow Architecture Design) 54
圖 4.3.1行為者(Actor)關係圖 56
圖 4.3.2群體軟體使用案例圖(GroupWare Use Case Diagram) 58
圖 4.3.3活動圖(Activity Diagram) 60
圖 4.3.4人機互動圖(一) 61
圖 4.3.5人機互動圖(二) 61
圖 4.3.6範疇類別(Boundary Class) 62
圖 4.3.7控制類別(Control Class) 63
圖 4.3.8實體類別(Entity Class) 63
圖 4.3.9 由Add Panelist使用案例(Use Case)中所找出的物件(object) 64
圖 4.3.10高階類別圖(High-Level Class Diagram) 64
圖 4.3.11 高階類別圖(High-Level Class Diagram) 66
圖 4.4.1 網頁圖(Web Pages Diagram) 68
圖 4.4.2範疇類別替換為網頁(Boundary Classes Replace to Web Pages) 69
圖 4.4.3由狀態圖設計頁面流程(Desgin PageFlow with State Diagram) 70
圖 4.4.4 由活動圖設計業務元件流程(Design BOFlow with Activity Diagram) 71
圖 4.4.5 由類別圖設計業務元件(Design Business Object with Class Diagram) 73
圖 4.4.6 物件映對圖(一)(Obejct to Table Mapping(1)) 74
圖 4.4.7物件映對圖(二)(Obejct to Table Mapping(2)) 75
圖 4.4.8物件映對圖(三)(Obejct to Table Mapping(3)) 76
圖 4.4.9 分離子類別表格(Separate Subclass table) 76
圖 4.4.10 子類別表格(Subclass table only) 77
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