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研究生:歐彥甫
研究生(外文):Yen Fu Ou
論文名稱:航空雷達之運動補償
論文名稱(外文):Motion Compensation in Airborne Radar
指導教授:成維華成維華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wei-Hua Chieng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:機械工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:62
中文關鍵詞:雷達合成孔鏡雷達運動補償
外文關鍵詞:radarsynthetic aperture radarmotion compensation
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由於航空雷達在飛機上受到載具飛機在空中的運動,大氣亂流的干擾,以及飛機結構的振動,造成雷達運動軌跡的偏差。因此雷達必須對其飛機運動的變化,去修正雷達掃瞄行徑軌跡、改變參考訊號的相位,和消除相位誤差。本論文主旨在於如何修改雷達的運動方位以補嘗掃瞄路徑的偏移,以解決影象的失焦及掃瞄目標位置的準確性,並且防止解析度的減少。而其主要的工作有三:第一、了解合成孔鏡雷達成像的基本原理。第二、以六軸平臺作為飛機的載具,再將兩軸的gimbals機構作為雷達兩軸機構,然後置於六軸平臺上,用以作為航空雷達架於飛航工具之運動模擬。第三、在訊號處理上,模擬phase gradient autofocus (PGA) 方法來解決高次項相位誤差造成的影像失真。

The antenna deviates from the ideal trajectory because of pilot-induced maneuvers, atmospheric gusts acting on the aircraft, and structural vibrations within the aircraft. We have to compensate the motion uncertainty of aircraft by correcting the motion deviation of radar, update the phase of reference signal, and eliminate phase error. The main idea of my thesis is how to compensate the motion error of aircraft, correct phase error, which smears radar image and mispoint the synthetic aperture. Moreover, preventing degradation of resolution. So there are three important steps: first, to study and understand the fundamental imagery approach of SAR. Second, in order to simulate the airborne radar system on the aircraft, we will use six-axis Steword platform for aircraft, three-axis gimbals for radar gimbals, and set up the two-axis gimbals on the six-axis platform. The airborne radar system is simulated with the motion platform. Third, in terms of signal processing, using PGA algorithm to eliminate high order phase error which defocus the radar image.

Content
摘要 i
Abstract ii
Acknowledgement iv
Content v
List of Figures………………………………………………………….vii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 MOTIVES AND OBJECTIVES 1
1.2 ARCHITECTURE OF THIS THESIS 2
Chapter 2 Radar System Overview 3
2.1 A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO RADAR 3
2.1 SIMPLE PULSE RADAR INTRODUCTION 4
2.2 ANTENNA BEAM-WIDTH [1] 7
2.3 ANTENNA RESOLUTION [1] 7
Chapter 3 Synthetic Aperture Radar Overview 9
3.1 BASIC SAR CONCEPT 9
3.2 SAR MODE 9
3.3 MOTION COMPENSATION IN SAR MODE 11
3.4 IMAGE PROCESSING OF SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR 13
3.4.1 RANGE IMAGE 14
3.4.2 CROSS RANGE IMAGE 14
3.4.3 FOCUS ARRAY 14
3.5 PHASE ERROR 15
Chapter 4 Motion Compensation Analysis in Radar 18
4.1 TRANSLATIONAL PATH 18
4.2 REAL ANTENNA STABILIZATION 20
4.3 LEVER ARM PATH 21
Chapter 5 Signal-based Motion Compensation 24
5.1 AUTOFOCUS [7] 24
5.2 PHASE GRADIENT AUTOFOCUS [7] 25
Chapter 6 Implementation 30
6.1 ANTENNA STABILIZATION 30
6.1.1 RADAR CONTROLLER AND PLATFORM CONTROLLER 30
6.1.2 AIRBORNE RADAR SYSTEM 31
6.2 SIMULATION OF PHASE CORRECTION 32
6.2.1 PGA ALGORITHM 32
6.2.2 ESTIMATE PHASE ERROR FUNCTION 34
Chapter 7 Conclusion 35
REFERENCE 38
List of Figures
Figure 2.1 Interrelationship of simple radar's basic elements 41
Figure 2.2 Pulse radar concept 42
Figure 2.3 Pulse radar concept 43
Figure 2.4 A resolution cell form antenna beam 44
Figure 3.1 Antenna beam of SAR 45
Figure 3.2 Spotlight mapping 46
Figure 3.3 Strip mapping 47
Figure 3.4 Doppler beam sharpening mapping 48
Figure 3.5 a simplified two-dimensional collection geometry 49
Figure 4.1 Translational motion and required motion compensation sensitivity 50
Figure 4.2 Minimum motion compensation transfer curve 51
Figure 4.3 Angular motion model and minimum antenna stabilization transfer curve 52
Figure 4.5 Lever Arm Correction 54
Figure 5.1 Flow diagram of the PGA algorithm 55
Figure 5.2 the example of center shifting 56
Figure 6.1 Antenna Control System Architecture 57
Figure 6.2 MFC interface of the controller 58
Figure 6.3 coruptted image with QPE 59
Figure 6.4 centershifting image 59
Figure 6.5 correct image using PGA 60
Figure 6.6 correct image using PGA 61
Figure 6.7 estimation of sinusoidal phase error 61
Figure 6.8 Steword platform and two-axis gimbals 62

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[2]. Byron Edde: “ RADAR PRINCIPLES, TECHNOLOGY, APPLICATIONS” Prentice-Hall International Editions, 1990
[3]. Merrill l. Skolnik: “Introduction to Radar Systems” McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1980
[4]. John C.Kirk, Jr., “Motion Compensation for Synthetic Aperture Radar”, in IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, Vol.AES-11, No.3, May 1975
[5]. “PMP2 User Manual”, Hurco, 2000
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[11]. Jesse C. Ryles, Richard M. Reeves, “Transfer alignment for motion stabilization of coherent radars”, Air Force Avionics Laboratory, WPAFB, Ohio
[12]. John C kirk Jr, Russ Lefevre, Randy van Daalen Wetters, Don Woods, Brendan Sullivan, ”Signal Based Motion Compensation”, IEEE international radar conference, 2000
[13]. Chris Oliver, Shaun Quegan, “Understanding Synthetic Aperture Radar Images”, Artech House, 1998
[14]. Mehrdad Soumekh, “Synthetic Aperture Radar Signal Processing with matlab algorithms”,a Wiley-Interscience Publication, 1999
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[16]. 張智星, ”Matlab 程式設計與應用” ,清蔚科技出版事業部, 1999
[17]. P.H. Eichel, D.C.Ghiglia, C.V. Jakowatz, Jr., D.E. Wahl, “Phase Gradient Autofocus for SAR Phase Correction: Explanation and Demonstration of Algorithmic Steps”, Sandia National Laboratories
[18]. D.E. Wahl, P.H. Eichel, D.C. Ghiglia, C.V. Jakowatz, JR., “Phase Gradient Autofocus-A Robust Tool for High Resolution SAR Phase Correction”, Sandia National Laboratories, IEEE, 1994

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