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研究生:陳育川
研究生(外文):Yu-Chuan Chen
論文名稱:應用界面活性劑於超臨界二氧化碳萃取親水性物質
論文名稱(外文):Applications of using surfactants in the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of hydrophilic compounds
指導教授:余艇
指導教授(外文):Tiing Yu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:應用化學系
學門:自然科學學門
學類:化學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:超臨界流體二氧化碳反微胞逆微胞界面活性劑親水性物質染料蛋白質
外文關鍵詞:supercritical fluidcarbon dioxidereverse micellesurfactanthydrophilic compounddyeprotein
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反微胞的形成為改善超臨界二氧化碳萃取極性物質的一個策略,但是幾乎所有商業上可購買到的界面活性劑在超臨界二氧化碳中溶解度皆不理想。然而,在超臨界二氧化碳中加入有機修飾劑可以有效改善這些界面活性劑的溶解度。在本研究我們測量了七種商業上可購買到離子性界面活性劑在超臨界二氧化碳中的溶解度,我們發現其中DDAB(didodecyldimethylammonium bromide)和AOT(sodium bis-2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate)在壓力高於225 bar、修飾劑乙醇濃度20%v/v的狀況下可以有高於18000 mg/l的溶解度。如此高的溶解度可確保界面活性劑於超臨界二氧化碳中形成反微胞,進而溶解親水性物質。我們成功地使用AOT和DDAB萃取出離子性染料(亞甲藍和甲基橙),但蛋白質-細胞色素C的萃取未能成功。另外,非離子性界面活性劑-Tetraethylene glycol n-lauryl ether證明能成功萃取出離子性染料。由於非離子性界面活性劑比離子性界面活性劑具有更低的極性,所以其在超臨界二氧化碳中具有較佳溶解度。因此我們可以在更低的操作壓力及修飾劑濃度下進行親水性物質的萃取。
Reverse micelle formation is presented in this study as a strategy for improving the extraction of polar species with supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2). Only mediocre solubilities of almost all commercial surfactants in neat SC CO2 have been reported in the literature. However, adding organic modifiers to SC CO2 can increase the surfactant solubilities. We measured the solubilities of seven commercially available ionic surfactants in the modifier-containing SC CO2. The solubilities of DDAB (didodecyldimethylammonium bromide) and AOT (sodium bis-2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate) exceeded 18000 mg/L at 225bar while the concentration of ethanol was 20% v/v. The high surfactant solubilities ensured formation of reverse micelle in SC CO2 for dissolving hydrophilic compounds. We successfully used AOT and DDAB to extract two ionic dyes (methylene blue & methyl orange), but failed to extract protein molecules - cytochrome c. In addition, a nonionic surfactant, i.e. tetraethylene glycol n-lauryl ether, was demonstrated to be able to extract the ionic dyes. Due to the relatively lower polarity of this nonionic surfactant and thus higher solubility in SC CO2, the extraction could be accomplished under relatively lower applied pressure and modifier concentration.
頁次
中文摘要………………………………………………………………i
英文摘要………………………………………………………………iii
謝誌……………………………………………………………………iv
總目錄…………………………………………………………………v
表目錄…………………………………………………………………viii
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………ix
第一章 緒論……………………………………………………………1
第二章 背景與理論介紹………………………………………………3
2.1 界面活性劑介紹……………………………………………3
2.1-1 界面活性劑分類………………………………………3
2.1-2 界面活性劑性質………………………………………5
2.1-3 界面活性劑之應用……………………………………6
2.2 反微胞萃取法………………………………………………6
2.2-1 簡介……………………………………………………6
2.2-2 萃取程序………………………………………………7
2.2-3 反微胞萃取的驅動力…………………………………7
2.2-4 影響反微胞萃取因素…………………………………9
2.2-5 反微胞分析方法………………………………………12
2.3 超臨界流體…………………………………………………13
2.3-1 超臨界流體定義………………………………………13
2.3-2 超臨界流體特性………………………………………14
2.3-3 超臨界流體總類………………………………………15
2.3-4 超臨界流體的溶解能力………………………………16
2.3-5 超臨界流體萃取裝置…………………………………17
2.3-6 超臨界流體的應用……………………………………22
2.3-7 應用超臨界二氧化碳於親水性物質萃取……………24
第三章 實驗部份…..…………………………………………………27
3.1 試藥…………………………………………………………27
3.2 儀器設備……………………………………………………29
3.3 實驗過程……………………………………………………31
3.3-1 界面活性劑的定性析………………………………31
3.3-2 界面活性劑溶解度測量………………………………33
3.3-3 反微胞萃取離子性染料………………………………34
3.3-4 反微胞萃取固態基質中的染料………………………36
3.3-5 反微胞萃取蛋白質……………………………………38
3.3-6 應用非離子型界面活性劑萃取親水性物質…………39
3.3-7 界面活性劑定量方法…………………………………41
3.3-8 蛋白質的定量方法……………………………………44
第四章 結果與討論…..…..……………………………………………45
4.1 界面活性劑定性分析………………………………………45
4.2 界面活性劑溶解度測量……………………………………46
4.3 反微胞萃取離子性染料……………………………………49
4.4 反微胞萃取固態基質中的染料……………………………51
4.5 反微胞萃取蛋白質…………………………………………52
4.6應用非離子型界面活性劑萃取染料………………………54
第五章 結論……………………………………………………………56
參考文獻………………………………………………………………58
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