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研究生:黃冠華
研究生(外文):Huang Kuan-hua
論文名稱:探討聲音屬性對於階層性網頁架構之對應關係
論文名稱(外文):Mapping between the Properties of Sound and the Hierarchical Webpages
指導教授:鄧怡莘鄧怡莘引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:應用藝術所
學門:藝術學門
學類:應用藝術學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:98
中文關鍵詞:聲音空間感網頁迷失網路空間
相關次數:
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網路空間中的活動是我們實體世界的延伸,隨著網路的擴張,我們可以探索的空間也將更加遼闊。然而,由於新的探索方式,與我們實體世界的互動方式有著顯著的差異,在網路空間中,我們不再經由全部的感官來體驗環境;我們的思考方式也不再侷限著線性的模式,取而代之的是跳躍的思維、多元的選擇。在這樣的環境下,產生了許多新的問題,而其中非常重要的問題之一,就是在網路空間中所產生『迷失』的問題。
如何加強瀏覽者在網路空間的方向感,有很多種可能的方式。本研究提出以聽覺的輔助,協助瀏覽者在瀏覽的過程中掌握網路空間的位置。研究中,以聲音屬性的變化及聲音元素互動方式的差異等變數,透過實驗設計,探討瀏覽者對於聲音屬性的掌握以及瀏覽者所能認知的互動方式,是否能夠協助其確認網路空間中的相對位置。
實驗結果顯示聲音的加入確實可以影響人們在網路虛擬世界的方向感的掌握。人們可以經由節奏的改變來區分身處於網頁架構階層的深淺程度,也能因為音色的差異性而瞭解不同的群組關係。而本研究所探討的聲音屬性與網路空間感關連影響的理論基礎,將可作為對於樹狀資訊架構的空間感指示的應用。
Activities in cyberspace are extensions to those in our physical world. With the expansion and development of the Internet, space we are able to explore is becoming wider. However, the way in which we explore in cyberspace is obviously different from that we use to interact in the physical world. In cyberspace we can no longer experience the environment through every part of our sensory organs. Nor is our way of thinking restricted in a linear one. Instead, people have more likely a jumping way of thinking and diversified choices in the virtual world. Under this circumstance, there have been lots of new problems, and one of the most critical problems is disorientation in the cyberspace.
There are many possible ways to enhance users’ sense of direction in the cyberspace. In this thesis we propose that by the utilization of sound we can assist users to know their position in cyberspace during the browsing. In this research, we design an experiment, in which there’re two variables, sound attribute and the difference of interaction between voice factors, to investigate if users’ grasp of the sound attributes and way of interaction users are able to recognize would help them to confirm the relational position in the cyberspace.
Finally, the experiment result shows that by inserting meaningful sounds we can enhance people’s sense of direction in the virtual cyberspace. People are able to know how deep they are in hierarchical webpages through the change of tempo. They can also relate different groups to different timbres. The theory and results we have derived about the mapping between properties of sound and hierarchical webpages can be applied in future internet applications to indicate the position and direction in the hierarchical information structure.
第一章 研究背景
1.1 研究動機
1.2 研究問題與目的
1.3 研究範圍與限制
1.4 論文架構
第二章 文獻探討
2-1.超媒體
2-1.1超文件與超媒體
2-1.2超媒體的資訊架構
2-1.3閱讀超媒體的行為模式
2-1.4瀏覽超媒體的路徑分析
2-2瀏覽超媒體產生的問題
2-2.1迷失的問題
2-2.1.1迷失的情形
2-2.1.2迷失行為的量測
2-3.聲音
2-3.1聲音訊號
2-3.1.1聲音訊號的特性
2-3.1.2聲音訊號的構成
2-3.2聽覺心理與聲音的認知
2-3.2.1有關音色的聽覺心理與認知
2-3.2.2節奏的相關性研究
2-3.3聲音對應於階層性資訊架構的相關研究
2-4.實體世界的空間認知
第三章 研究方法與步驟
3-1研究假設
3-2研究架構
3-3研究方法
3-3.1路徑追蹤
3-3.2放聲思考
3-3.3實驗後訪談
3-4實驗步驟
3-4.1階段一:聲音應用的篩選
3-4.2階段二:網頁內容之選定
3-4.3階段三:網頁樣本之修改
3-4.4階段四:網頁的任務測試
第四章 實驗結果
4-1聲音的知覺性
4-2位置判斷的正確率
4-2.1階層的正確率
4-2.2群組的正確率
4-2.3群組與階層位置正確人數
4-3迷失率統計結果
4-4特殊路徑摘錄
4-5口語行為觀察摘錄
第五章 討論
5-1知覺程度的差異
5-1.1不同的聲音介面的資訊表達效果差異原因
5-2節奏的效果
5-3音色的效果
5-4位置的判斷方式
5-5迷失率結果討論
5-6主觀迷失
5-6.1本研究的主客觀迷失情形
5-6.2主觀迷失標準的差異原因
5-7實體與虛擬世界在空間搜尋以及定位上之相似處
5-8聲音應用設計的改良方向
5-9總結
第六章 結論與建議
6-1研究成果回顧
6-2研究貢獻
6-3研究不足之處與後續研究建議
參考文獻 附錄
附錄一 Wordpad資訊架構圖
附錄二 實驗說明及任務步驟
附錄三 路徑記錄案例
附錄四 實驗後訪談問卷案例
附錄五 統計資料
附錄六 口語資料整理
有關超文件、瀏覽行為之參考文獻
Carme,l E., Crawford S., Chen H., 1992, “ Browsing in hypertext: A cognitive study”, IEEE transactions on systems, man, and cybernetics, vol. 22, no5, pp. 865-833.
Catledge, L. D. and Pitkow, J. E., 1995, “ Characterizing browsing strategies in the world-wide-web”, http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/reports/1995/
Conklin, J., 1987, “ Hypertext: An Introduction and Survey,” IEEE Computer, (September) 17ff, pp. 17-41.
Cove, J. F. and Walsh, B. C., 1988, “ Online text retrieval via browsing”, Inform, Processing and Management, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 331-37.
Elm, W. C. and Woods, D. D., 1985, “ Getting lost: a case study in interface design.”, Proceedings of the Human Factors Society , pp.927-931.
Foss, C. L., 1989, “ Tools for reading and browsing hypertext”, Information processing and Management 25:4, p. 407.
Larson, k. and Czerwinski, M., 1998, “ Web Page Design: Implications of Memory, Structure and Scent for Information Retrieval” , In Proceedings of CHI ’98, Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM press, pp.25-32.
Léon D. and Holsánová J., 1997, " Revealing User Behaviour on the World-Wide Web" Lund University Cognitive Studies, p. 60.
Lim, Edwin and Paynter, J., 1998, “ Design considerations for Web site navigation. Internet”, http://www.uniforum.org.nz/conferences/1998/papers/lim.html; Accessed 18 November 2000.
Nielsen, J., 2000, “ Eyetracking study of web reader”, http://www.useit.com/
Nielsen, J., 1995, Multimedia and Hypertext: the Internet and Beyond , AP Professional, Boston, MA, p.1.
Nielsen, J., 1993, Usability Engineering, Academic Press, Inc., pp. 195-198, pp. 209-214.
Smith, P. A., 1996, “ Towards a practical measure of hypertext usability”, Interacting with Computers, vol. 8, no 4, pp. 365-381.
Zoellick, B.,1987, “ Selecting an Approach to Document Retrieval“. In Optical Publishing: A
Practical Approach to Developing CD ROM Applications, ed. S. Ropiequet, J. Einberger and B. Zoellick, Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press.
有關聲音之參考文獻
Blattner, M. M., Sumikawa, D.A., and Greenberg, R.M., 1989, " Earcons and Icons: Their Structure and Common Design Principles," Human-Computer Interaction 4(1), pp. 11-44.
Blattner, M. M., and Greenberg, R. M., 1992, “ Communicating and learning through non-speech audio”. Multimedia Interface Design in Education, A. Edwards & S. Holland (Eds) Springer-Verlag, NATO ASI Series F, pp. 133-143.
Brewster, S. A., 1994, “ Providing a Structured Method for Integrating Non-Speech Audio into Human-Computer Interfaces”, pp. 16-37, PhD Thesis, University of York, UK.
Brewster, S.,1997, “ Navigating Telephone-Based Interfaces with Earcons”, http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/~stephen/papers/HCI97.PDF
Deatherage, B. H., 1972, Auditory and another sensory forms of information presentation. In HP Van Cott and RG Kinkade (eds) Human Engineering Guide to Equipment Design, Washington DC, US Printing Office.
Denning, S., Hoiem, D., Simpson, M., and Sullivan, K.,1990, The value of thinking-aloud protocols in industry: A case study at Microsoft Corporation. Proc. Human Factors Society 34th Annual Meeting, pp. 1285-1289.
Gaver, W. W., 1997, Auditory interfaces. In M. G. Helander, T. K. L. Landauer and P. Prabhu (Eds.) Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.
Grey, J. M., 1976, “ Multidimensional perceptual scaling of musical timbres”, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 61, pp. 1270-1277.
Handel, S., 1989, “ Listening: an introduction to the perception of auditory events”, Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England: The MIT Press, pp. 321-459.
Leplâtre, G. and Brewster, S., 1998, “ An investigation of using music to provide navigation cues”, http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/~stephen/papers/ICAD98_GL.PDF
Leplâtre, G. and Brewster, S., 2000, “ Designing Non-Speech Sounds to Support Navigation in Mobile Phone Menus”, http://www.icad.org/websiteV2.0/Conferences/ICAD2000/PDFs/Leplatre.pdf
Leplâtre, G. and Brewster, S., 1998, “ An investigation of using music to provide navigation cues”, http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/~stephen/papers/ICAD98_GL.PDF
Marchionini, G., 1995, Information Seeking in Electronic Environments, New York: Cambridge University Press.
有關實體世界方向感之參考文獻
Bulter, D. L., Acquino, A. L., and Scott, P. A., 1993, “ Wayfinding by newcomers in a complex building.”, Human Factors, 35(1), pp.159-173.
Franklin, N. and Tversky, B., 1990, “ Searching imagined environments.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 119(1), pp.63-76.
Hintzman, D. L., O’Dell, C. S. and Arndt, D. R., 1981, “ Orientation in cognitive maps.” Cognitive Psychology, 13, pp.149-206.
Hunt, E. and Waller, D., 1999, “ Orientation and wayfinding: A review” (ONR
technical report N00014-96-0380). Arlington, VA: Office of Naval Research.
Johnson-Laird, P. N. and Byrne, M. J. B., 1991, Deduction, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Poucet, B., 1993, “ Spatial cognitive maps in animals: New hypotheses on their structures and neural mechanisms”. Psychological Review, 100(2), pp. 163-182.
Siegel, A. W. and White, S. H.,1975, “ The development of spatial representations of large-scale environments.” In H. W. Reese (Ed.) Advances in Child Development and Behavior. 10, New York: Academic Press, pp. 9-55
Taylor, H. A. and Tversky, B., 1996, “ Perspective in spatial descriptions.” Journal of Memory and Language, 35, pp. 371-391.
Van Dijik, T. A. and Kintsch, W., 1983, Strategies of Discourse Comprehension. New York: Academic Press.
其他
Ericsson, K. A., and Simon, H. A., 1984, Protocal Analysis: Verbal Reports as Data. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Helander, M., Landauer, T.K., Prabhu, P. (eds.), 1997, Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction, pp. 1003-1037.
McCormick, E. J., 1976, Human Factor in Engineering and Design, 4th Ed., pp.128, McGraw Hill, New York, USA.
中文參考文獻
林珊如, 民86, 從文獻分析探討『瀏覽』之概念, 圖書館學刊(台大)12期, pp. 63-91.
劉純芳, 民89, 全球資訊網路使用者瀏覽行為分析, 輔仁大學圖書資訊學系碩士論文
莊雅量, 民90, 應用音樂性聲音訊號傳達訊息屬性的可能性研究, 交通大學應用藝術研究所碩士論文
李開偉, 民88, 《人因工程-基礎與應用》, 全華科技圖書股份有限公司出版
黃朝盟 趙美慧, 民90, 《 .COM的策略規劃與設計》, 商鼎文化出版, pp. 76-89.
郭美女,民89,《聲音與音樂教育》, 五南圖書出版有限公司.
Berners-Lee, T., et. al.,張介英, 徐子超/譯, 民88, 《一千零一網:網際網路WWW發明人的思想構圖》, 商務出版社, pp. 254.
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