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研究生:林穎燦
研究生(外文):Ying-Tsan Lin
論文名稱:無刷直流馬達無感測換相控制IC之規劃與設計
論文名稱(外文):Design of Sensorless Commutation Control IC for Brushless DC Motors
指導教授:鄒應嶼鄒應嶼引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ying-Yu Tzou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:電機與控制工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:77
中文關鍵詞:無感測換相零交越偵測
外文關鍵詞:sensorless commutationzero-crossing detection
相關次數:
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本論文以混合訊號積體電路設計的技術,設計與規劃應用於無刷直流馬達的無感測換相控制IC,目的是為了設計一顆不需霍爾元件回授信號仍可進行無刷直流馬達速度控制的IC。此顆IC採用端電壓量測方式的無感測換相控制技術,藉由偵測未激發相反抗電動勢的零交越點,估算馬達的換相時刻。控制IC的架構主要包含換相偵測電路與換相控制電路,換相偵測電路以類比電路的方式實現,其核心為餘值放大器、比較器及多工器,目的是為了產生正確的零交越訊號;換相控制電路,以數位電路方式實現,可實現可程式化的換相控制功能,所設計的數位式相位移器,具有8種可程式化的相位補償角,可以修正輸入濾波器所造成的相位落後,降低換相誤差。本論文所設計的無感測換相控制IC採用開迴路啟動的方法,同時內建速度估測的機制,設計流程是先以PSIM軟體模擬動態速度估測效果,進而分析速度估測演算法的可行性,最後再以晶片實現。本論文說明了無刷直流馬達換相控制IC的類比及數位電路的設計方法,發展了類比換相偵測電路的IC智權,完成了換相控制電路的電腦輔助設計與模擬驗證,並實際以一個DVD主軸馬達控制CPLD IC設計平台完成功能驗證。
This thesis presents the plan and design of a sensorless commutation control IC using mixed-signal technology for brushless DC motors (BLDCM). The goal is to design a sensorless BLDCM control IC without using the Hall sensors. Back emf method using the terminal voltage sensing is adopted for the detection of the commutation instants for the proper commutation control of the BLDCM. The control IC contains a commutation detection circuit and commutation control circuit. The commutation detection circuit is designed using analog IC design technique and it consists of a residue amplifier, a comparator, and a multiplexer to generate correct commutation signals. The commutation control circuit is designed using digital IC design technique and it is realized by using CPLD for functional verification. A frequency independent digital phase shifter containing eight programmable phase-lag angles has been designed, which can be used to compensate the phase lag due to the back emf filtering. Open-loop control with programmable ramp control has been used for the start-up control of the design sensorless commutation control IC. The designed IC also contains a speed estimator and a PI compensator. This paper presents a detailed design procedure for the design of a motor control IC using both analog and digital design techniques. Analog intellectual properties (IP) of the BLDCM sensorless commutation IC have been developed. The proposed design scheme has been first verified by using computer simulation and then by a CPLD-based DVD spindle motor control IC development platform.
目 錄
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
誌謝 iv
目錄 vi
表列 x
圖列 xii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 研究背景與發展現況 4
1.3 研究方法與系統描述 5
1.4 論文內容概述 6
第二章 無感測換相控制原理及IC之規劃 7
2.1 無感測控制技術介紹 7
2.1.1 前言 7
2.1.2 端電壓量測法 8
2.2 數位式相位移器 11
2.2.1 傳統相位移器與MDFIPS之比較 11
2.2.2 MDFIPS的操作模式分析 13
2.3 換相控制IC的規劃 15
2.4 換相控制IC的設計流程 18
第三章 換相控制IC的設計與實現 20
3.1 零交越訊號偵測電路的設計與實現 20
3.1.1 電路架構 21
3.1.2 餘值放大器 22
3.1.3 運算放大器 25
3.1.4 比較器 28
3.1.5 偏壓電路 30
3.1.6 時脈產生器 31
3.1.7 物理佈局 33
3.1.8 模擬結果 34
3.2 換相控制電路的設計與實現 35
3.2.1 數位式相位移器及相角補償器的設計 36
3.2.2 時間延遲器的設計 39
3.2.3 換相邏輯電路的設計 39
第四章 速度估測器的設計與實現 42
4.1 前言 42
4.2 開迴路啟動方法與啟動電路的設計與實現 43
4.2.1 開迴路啟動方法 43
4.2.2 啟動程序與換相時間的估算 43
4.2.3 啟動電路的設計與實現 47
4.3 速度估測的機制 50
4.3.1 速度估測的原理 50
4.3.2 反抗電動勢的非理想效應 52
4.3.3 微分運算的影響 53
4.4 速度估測的PSIM模擬 54
4.5 速度估測電路的設計與實現 56
4.5.1 設計考量 56
4.5.2 電路方塊 56
4.5.3 IIR濾播器的設計 58
第五章 控制IC的發展平台與實驗結果 62
5.1 發展平台說明 62
5.2 DVD主軸馬達IC設計平台 64
5.2.1 CPLD模擬板 64
5.2.2 主軸馬達控制IC設計平台周邊電路板 65
5.3 無感測換相控制IC的硬體實現 67
5.4 實驗結果 70
第六章 結論 76
參考文獻 R-1
附錄A 符號說明 A-1
附錄B 無刷直流馬達規格 B-1
作者簡介 AU-1
Sensorless Control Technology for Brushless DC Motor Drives
[1] J. P. Johnson, M. Ehsani, and Y. Guzelgunler, “Review of sensorless methods for brushless DC,” IEEE IAS Annual Meeting Conf. Rec., vol. 2, pp. 1033-1040, 1999.
[2] D. H. Jung and I. J. Ha, “Low-cost sensorless control of brushless DC motors using frequency-independent phase shifter,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 744-752, July 2000.
[3] C. C. Chan, J. Z. Jiang, W. Xia, and K. T. Chau, “Novel wide range speed control of permament magnet brushless motor drives,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 539-546, Sept. 1995.
[4] K. Tatemarus, D. Hamada, K. Uchida, S. Wakao, and T. Onuki, “New approaches with sensorless drives,” IEEE Ind. Applicat., Magazine, vol. 6, pp. 44-50, July/Aug. 2000.
[5] R. Mizutani, T. Takeshita, and N. Matsui, “Current model-based sensorless drives of salient-pole PMSM at low speed and standstill,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 841-846, July/August 1998.
[6] Hyeong-Gee Yee, Chang-Seok Hong, Ji-Yoon Yoo, Hyeon-Gil Jang, Yeong-Don Bae, Yoon-Seo Park, “Sensorless drive for interior permanent magnet brushless DC motors,” IEEE International Electric Machines and Drives Conf. Rec., pp. TD1/3.1-3, 1997.
[7] K. Iizaka, H. Uzuhashi, et. al., “Microcomputer control for sensorless brushless DC motor,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 595-601, May/June 1985.
[8] J. C. Moreira, “Indirect sensing for rotor flux position of permanent magnet AC motors operating in a wide speed range,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1394-1401, Nov./Dec. 1994.
[9] S. Ogasawara and H. Akagi, “An approach to position sensorless drive for brushless DC motor,” IEEE IAS Annual Meeting Conf. Rec., pp. 443-447, 1990.
[10] M. Tomita, T. Senjyu, S. Doki, and S. Okuma, “New asensorless control for brushless DC motors using disturbance observers and adaptive velocity estimations,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 45, pp. 274-282, April 1998.
[11] R. Dhaouadi, N. Mohan, and I. Norum, “Design and implementation of an extended Kalman filter for the state estimation of a permanent magnet synchronous motor,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 6, pp. 491-497, July 1991.
[12] N. Matsui and T. Takeshita, “A novel starting method of sensorless salient-pole brushless DC motor,” IEEE IAS Annual Meeting Conf. Rec., vol. 1, pp. 386-392, 1994.
Analog Integrated Circuit Design
[13] David A. Johns, Ken Martin, Analog Integrated Circuit Design, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1997.
[14] Behzad Razavi, Deisgn of Analog Integrated Circuits, McGraw-Hill, 2000.
[15] G. M. Yin, F. Op’t Eynde and W. Sansen, “A high speed CMOS comparator with 8-b resolution,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 208-211, Feb. 1992.
Digital Integrated Circuit Design
[16] Vijay K. Madisetti, Digital Signal Processors: An Introduction to Rapid Prototyping and Design Synthesis, IEEE Press, 1995.
[17] Keshab K. Parhi, VLSI Digital Signal Processing System-Design and Implementation, John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
[18] Ken Martin, Digital Integrated Circuit Design, Oxford, New York, 2000.
Datasheet
[19] ML4411, Sensorless Spindle Motor Controller, MicroLinear, May 1997.
[20] L6238, Sensorless Spindle Motor Controller, SGS-THOMSON, Jun. 1993.
[21] TB6520P, PWM Type 3-Phase Full-Wave Sensorless Motor Controller, TOSHIBA, Apr. 1999.
[22] 8902A, 3-Phase Brushless DC Motor Controller/Driver with Back-EMF Sensing, Allegro, Nov. 1995.
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