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研究生:楊勝雄
研究生(外文):Sheng-Hsung Young
論文名稱:遙控機器人系統之虛擬物體形變
論文名稱(外文):VR Object Deformation in Telerobotic System
指導教授:楊谷洋楊谷洋引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kuu-Young Young
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:電機與控制工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:47
中文關鍵詞:形變遙控機器人系統控制點虛擬實境
外文關鍵詞:deformationtelerobotic Systemfree-form deformationBeziercontrol pointsvirtual reality
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網路的應用伴隨著網路技術的成長,過去十年中,許多新的應用曾被提出, 其中一項有趣的應用是遠端操控。遠端操控技術兼備了使用者為系統監控者和機器為執行者兩項機制,且由於人和機器皆處於整個控制迴路中,以致於發展遙控機器人系統會產生一些挑戰。在本篇論文中,我們討論了在設計遙控機器人系統可能需要面對的挑戰,並且解決了遠端呈現這一項挑戰。為了使操作者能融入遠端環境中,遠端操控系統引入了虛擬實境的技術,許多的虛擬實境系統皆能使人們覺得他們真的在電腦繪圖所建的虛擬世界中,但是不能與虛擬實境中之物體作互動,只有當虛擬實境系統配備有觸覺呈現能力時才能提供互動的功能,它允許使用者不只可以看得到虛擬環境還可以與其互動。在本篇論文所開發的系統中,使用者可以體驗物體形變的效果,並且感覺像在操縱真實的物體。

The growth of the internet is accompanied by the increase of its applications. Many new internet based applications have been introduced during the past decade. One of the interesting applications is teleoperation. Teleoperation techniques unite the human operator as the supervisor and the machine as the manipulator. Because both the human operator and machine are involved in the control loop, the development of a telerobotic system poses challenges. In this thesis, we discuss the challenges we may face in designing a teleoperation system and we deal with the challenge of telepresence. To make the operator immersing into the remote environment, virtual reality (VR) is introduced into the teleoperation system. Many VR systems allow people to feel that they are in the virtual world constructed by computer graphics, but they cannot interact with the VR object. The VR system equipped with the haptic rendering ability can provide the interaction. It allows users not only to see the virtual environment but also interact with it. In the system developed in this thesis, the user can experience object deformation and feel like they are actually manipulating the real objects.

Contents
Chinese Abstract i
English Abstract ii
Acknowledgement iii
Contents iv
List of Tables vi
List of Figures vii
1 Introduction
1
2 Object Deformation 9
2.1 Free From Deformation ………………………………… 11
2.1.1 FFD operation …………………………………………… 13
2.1.2 Coordinate systems …………………………………… 14
2.2 Bezier Functions …………………………………………… 16
2.2.1 Bezier curve ……………………………………………… 16
2.2.2 Bezier surface …………………………………………… 20
2.2.3 Bezier volume ……………………………………………… 20
2.2.4 Bezier and B-spline function ………………………… 22
2.3 Spring Model ……………………………………………………23
3 Experiments 25
3.1 Object Deformation Experiment ………………………… 28
4 Conclusion 41
4.1 Future Works ……………………………………………………… 42
Bibliography 44
List of Tables
3.1: The relationship of △x and virtual force ……………… 40
List of Figures
Figure 1.1: A general networked VR-based telerobotic system
………………………… 3
Figure 1.2: A networked VR-based telerobotic system in our
laboratory ……………………………………………… 8
Figure 2.1: One example of object deformation using the finite-
element method ……………………………………………10
Figure 2.2: Two-dimensional FFD with a cubic Bezier basis
……………………………13
Figure 2.3: The FFD procedure for VR object deformation
……………………………15
Figure 2.4: Bezier basis function with (a) degree 1,
(b) degree 2, and (c) degree 3 …………………… 18
Figure 2.5: Two examples of cubic Bezier curves : (a) initial
posture of the curve and (b) the posture of the
curve when P1, P2, and P3 change positions ...
………………………… 19
Figure 2.6: An example of a cubic Bezier surface …………… 20
Figure 2.7: An example of a cubic Bezier volume ………………21
Figure 2.8: Cubic B-spline curve basis functions ………………23
Figure 3.1: The user operates the force-reflection joystick to
interact with a soft object ………………………26
Figure 3.2: The laporoscopic impulse engine force feedback
surgical simulation tool …………………………… 27
Figure 3.3: The NuVision 60GX stereo glasses ………………… 28
Figure 3.4: The rendering of virtual reality object with
stereo-mode is (a) not functional (b) functional
………………………………………… 29
Figure 3.5: An example of the FEM for cuboid deformation: (a)
the conceptual diagram (b) the VR object, and (c)
the view of the robot’s griper contracting with a
cuboid object ……………………………………… 30
Figure 3.6: An example of the FEM for cylindrical object
deformation: (a) the conceptual diagram (b) the VR
object, and (c) the view of the robot’s griper
contracting with a cylindrical object …………… 31
Figure 3.7: An example of the FFD for object deformation: (a)
pre-deformation and (b) post-deformation …………33
Figure 3.8: Demo of FFD with showing the movement of lattice
control points ………………………………………… 39

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