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研究生:陳亙志
研究生(外文):Ken-Chih Chen
論文名稱:5.1聲道音響撥放系統之多頻帶空間響應模擬器
論文名稱(外文):Multi-band Room Effect Emulator for 5.1 channel sound system
指導教授:林進燈林進燈引用關係周志成周志成引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chin-Teng LinChih-Chen Chou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:電機與控制工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:空間模擬5.1聲道杜比等化器
外文關鍵詞:Room Effect5.1 channel sound systemDolbyEqualizer EQ
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摘要
最早的多聲道撥放系統格式是針對電影院的撥放於1950s由杜比實驗室所提出。其與一般的Stereo(2或3聲道撥放系統)的主要差異在於Surround Sound增設。其主要是為了增加聽者聆聽的臨場感,產生包圍性以及空間的效果,而不在於定位。
現今不論在軟體或者硬體上有許多的聲道分離技術,其中有些都是利用簡單的濾波器(低通/高通/帶通濾波器)來達成聲道的分離,但是這樣的方式非常的粗略並不精確。為了要得到比較正確的分離方式,在本論文中我們參考Dolby Surround 解碼的觀念,而主要專注於空間響應的模擬。根據杜比實驗室Surround sound的定義,我們藉由空間響應模擬器產生不同品質的audio 訊號,然後將這樣的傳統stereo訊號用一modified Dolby Surround decoder進一步的擴展成5.1聲道撥放。我們更進一步的要求聲音品質的變化,所以我們引進不同空間大小有不同脈衝響應的概念,以及利用一個多帶等化器來產生不同感覺的聆聽效果於多聲道的撥放系統。如此便可以得到一個豐富且附有臨場感的聆聽經驗。

Abstract
The earliest multichannel reproduction system format was brought up for theatre by Dolby Liboratories Inc in 1950s. The main difference between the conventional stereo (two or three dimension) and multichannel sound system is the setup of surround sound channel. The main purpose of surround channel is to produce the effect of liveness, sense of envelopment, and wide spatiality.
There exist many methods for audio channel separation in nowaday’s hardware and software techniques. Most of them used simple filters (low/high/band pass) to reach channel separation, but this kind of method is quite rough. In order to get a correct separation solution, we use the concept of Dolby Surround decoding in our research.
In this thesis, what we engaged is about room effect simulation. Based on the definition of surround sound referred to Dolby Liboratories Inc., we generate different quality of audio sound sources by a room effect emulator, and then turn the conventional stereo into 5.1 channel sound system by a modified Dolby Surround decoder. We further introduce the concept of room effect impulse response in different room-dimension, and use multi-bands equalizer to generate many kinds of music impression for the multichannel sound system. In this way, we can get a full and a live listening experience.

Contents
Chinese Abstract i
English Abstract ii
Chinese Acknowledgements iii
Contents iv
List of Tables vi
List of Figures viii
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 System Structure and Thesis Organization 4
Chapter 2 5.1-Channel Sound System and Surround Sound
2.1 Overview 7
2.2 Dolby Surround Encoding 11
2.3 Dolby Surround Decoding 12
2.4 Simplified Surround Sound Decoder 14
Chapter 3 Audio Room Effect and Reverberator
3.1 Artificial Reverberation 16
3.1.1 Inverse Comb Filters 17
3.1.2 Comb Filter 19
3.1.3 All-Pass Filters 21
3.2 Schreoder Algorithm 24
3.2.1 Frequency Densuty 27
3.2.2 Echo Density 28
3.2.3 Avoidance of Unnatural Resonances 29
3.2.4 Reverberation Time 31
3.2.5 Frequency-Dependent Reverberation Time 32
3.3 Moorer’s Reverberator 34
Chapter 4 Multi-Bands Room Effect Emulator
4.1 Overview 36
4.2 Improved Reverberator for Stereo Room Simulation 37
4.2.1 FIR Filter for Early Reflection 39
4.2.2 Parallel Comb Filters and Ccascade All-pass Filters for Late Reverberation Modeling 41
4.3 Multi-band Equalizer 45
4.3.1 Psychoacoustics and Critical Bands 45
4.3.2 Multiband Equalizer 48
4.3.2.1 Psychoacoustics-based Multi-band Scheme 50
4.3.3 Selective Music Impressions by Equalizer 52
Chapter 5 Friendly User Interface for Multi-Bands Room Effect Emulator
5.1 Basis of FuzzyLogic and Fuzzy Inference System 55
5.1.1 Fuzzy Variable and Fuzzy Set 56
5.1.2 Basic Operation and Fuzzy Inference system 57
5.2 Fuzzy User Interface for Room Effect Emulator 59
5.2.1 Fuzzy User Interface for Reverberator (Room_size Selection) 60
5.2.1.1 Fuzzification 61
5.2.1.2 Rule Evaluation 63
5.2.1.3 Defuzzication 65
5.2.2 Fuzzy User Interface for 10-Band Equalizer (Music Quality Selection) 66
5.2.2.1 Fuzzification 67
5.2.2.2 Rule Evaluation 69
5.2.2.3 Defuzzication 70
5.3 Fuzzy input to the Fuzzy User Interface 71
5.3.1 Linguistic Variables and Linguistic Hedge 71
5.3.2 Linguistic inputs for Music Quality Selection 73
Chapter 6 Experiment Experiment and Results
6.1 Experiment Environment 76
6.2 Experiments and Results 78
6.2.1 Impulse Response of Different Acoustic Room Dimensions 78
6.2.2 Music Impressions 80
Chapter 7 Conclusions
References

[1] Gunther Theile, “On the Naturalness of Two-Channel Stereo Sound,”AES 9th International Conference, Detroit, MI, 1991 Feb 1-2.
[2] David Carugo, “DEVELOPMENT OF A SURROUND ENCODING ALGORITHM,” Proceedings of the COST G-6 Conference on Digital Audio Effects (DAFX-00), Verona, Italy, December 7-9, 2000
[3] EMIL TORICK, AES Fellow, “Highlights in the History of Multichannel Sound,” J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol.46, No. 1/2, 1998 Jan/Feb.
[4] CHRIS KYRIAKAKIS, MEMBER, IEEE, “Fundamental and Technological imitations of Immersive Audio Systems,” Proceedings of the IEEE, VOL. 86, NO. 5, MAY 1998
[5] Joseph Hull, Marketing Communications Manager, Surround Sound Past, Present, and Future, Dolby Liboratories Inc, 1999.
[6] “5.1-Channel Production Guidekines,” Dolby Liboratories Inc, 2000; All right reserved.
[7] David Carugo, “DEVELOPMENT OF A SURROUND ENCODING ALGORITHM,” Proceedings of the COST G-6 Conference on Digital Audio Effects (DAFX-00), Verona, Italy, December 7-9, 2000
[8] Sean Browne, “Hybrid reverberation Algorithm Using Truncated Impulse response convolution And Recursive Filtering,”Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Music Engineering Technology, Univ. MIAMI, June, 2001.
[9] Udo Zoler, “Room effect,” in “Digital Audio signal processing,” JOHN WILEY & SONS, LTD, 1995.
[10] M.R. Schroeder: Statistical Parameters of the Frequency Response Curves of Large Rooms, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 35, No. 5, pp. 299-305, 1987.
[11] D. Griesinger: Practical Processors and Programs for Digital Reverberatrion, Proc. AES 7th Int. Conf., pp 187-195, Toronto, 1989.
[12]http://www.soundslogical.com/support/wavewarp/documentation/english/documentparts/randomreverbcasestudy.html
[13] Oppenheim, Willsky, Nawab et, “Signals & Systems,” Prentice Hall International, Inc. , 2nd et, 1997, Ch. 3.9, pp. 232-236.
[14] William Grant Gardner, “The Virtual Acoustic Room”,S.B., Computer Science and Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, assachusetts 1982
[15] Lauri Savioja, “Modeling Techniques for Virtual Acoustics”Ph. D. dissertation, Dept. Technology, Univ. Helsinki, December, 1999.
[16] E. Zwicker H.fastl, “Masking”, Psychoacoustics: Facts and Models, Spring-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg New York London Paris Tokyo Hong Kong Barcelona, 2nd et, 1998.
[17] http://www.tonmeister.ca/main/textbook/electroacoustics/01.html
[18]http://arts.ucsc.edu/ems/music/equipment/signal_processors/processors_intro/processors.html
[19] http://www.electronixwarehouse.com/education/equalizers/whatsaneq.htm
[20] Chin-Teng Lin and C.S. George Lee, “Neural Fuzzy System,” Prentice-Hall International, Inc., 1996 ch. 2, pp. 11-12.
[21] Chin-Teng Lin and C.S. George Lee, “Neural Fuzzy System,” Prentice-Hall International, Inc., 1996 ch. 7, pp. 142-157.
[22] Chin-Teng Lin and C.S. George Lee, “Neural Fuzzy System,” Prentice-Hall International, Inc., 1996 ch. 7, pp. 156-159.
[23] Chin-Teng Lin and C.S. George Lee, “Neural Fuzzy System,” Prentice-Hall International, Inc., 1996 ch. 6 pp. 114-118.

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