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研究生:簡辰竹
研究生(外文):Chen-Chu Chien
論文名稱:家用機器人之影像追蹤系統
論文名稱(外文):Design and Implementation of a Visual Tracking System for a Home Robot
指導教授:宋開泰
指導教授(外文):Kai-Tai Song
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:電機與控制工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:99
中文關鍵詞:家用機器人影像追蹤
外文關鍵詞:Home RobotVisual Tracking
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本論文發展一套應用於家用機器人之影像追蹤系統。本系統以使用者之輪廓與膚色為特徵,偵測人臉是否在畫面中,進而執行追蹤之任務。本系統除機器人之二自由度頭部可追蹤人臉,同時能隨時修正本體的姿態,使本體亦能追隨人移動,達到一種互動的功能。本論文並完成家用機器人的影像追蹤控制器,本控制器是基於影像(Image-base)的伺服控制系統,使用影像的特徵為控制命令,整個控制器為一個閉迴路控制系統,使控制器能確實將機器人頭部的攝影機移動到指定的位置。在本論文中並以DSP為核心發展一運動控制卡,應用於頭部與本體的運動控制。本體的運動控制包含路徑追蹤之功能,使用軸編碼器與陀螺儀量測偏向角度,並應用最佳控制中的線性二次調節器(LQR)消除運動誤差,內建路徑追蹤控制器於本體的運動控制卡中,使機器人可隨所設之路徑行走。整合測試之實驗結果顯示本系統具有即時追蹤人臉之功能。
In this thesis, we developed a visual tracking system for a home robot. The system can detect human faces and track a person by controlling a two-degree-of-freedom robot-head. The visual tracking controller can pursue a person by controlling the robot body motion as well as the head orientation. An image processing system has been developed to extract facial features for a COMS PC Camera. An algorithm is proposed to recognize a human head in this thesis by using skin colour and elliptical shape of a human face. A DSP-based motor control card is developed for robot motion control. The visual tracking control system has been integrated on a self-made home robot H2. Experimental results show that the robot can track a person in real-time.
目錄
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
致謝 iii
目錄 iv
圖例 vi
表格 viii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 相關研究回顧 1
1.3 問題描述 4
1.4 章節說明 4
第二章 家用機器人系統架構 6
2.1 家用機器人之機構 7
2.2 家用機器人之電力系統 10
2.3 控制系統架構 12
第三章 頭部影像追蹤系統 14
3.1 色彩轉換與膚色區域分割 14
3.2 影像邊緣檢測 18
3.3 頭部特徵搜尋定位與追蹤 20
3.3.1 頭部模型之定義 20
3.3.2 頭部輪廓之搜尋 21
3.3.3 頭部輪廓之定位與追蹤 22
3.4 頭部運動座標轉換 23
3.5 影像追蹤控制器設計 30
3.6 本體追隨運動控制 33
3.7 頭部與本體系統整合架構 35
第四章 路徑追蹤控制器之設計 37
4.1 本體運動控制系統架構 37
4.2 機器人本體運動方程式之定義 37
4.3 控制器追蹤誤差之定義 39
4.4 運動狀態空間模型與路徑追蹤控制器之設計 42
4.5 時變最佳控制 44
4.6 電腦模擬 47
4.6.1 電腦模擬結果 49
4.7 實作於DSP運動控制卡 53
4.8 家用機器人姿態估測 55
4.8.1 馬達軸編碼器的姿態估測 56
4.8.2 陀螺儀於姿態估測之應用 57
第五章 DSP運動控制卡與驅動電路之架構與設計 60
5.1 DSP運動控制卡之系統架構 60
5.2 馬達驅動電路之系統架構 64
5.3 DSP運動控制卡之I/O介面規劃 66
5.4 PID伺服控制器之設計 67
5.5 PID伺服控制器之實驗結果 70
第六章 實驗結果 74
6.1 影像追蹤系統實驗結果 74
6.1.1 頭部影像追蹤獨立測試 74
6.1.2 正面左右行走追蹤測試 76
6.1.3 正面接近測試 78
6.1.4 正面追隨測試 79
6.1.5 頭部與本體整合測試一 81
6.1.6 頭部與本體整合測試二 84
6.1.7 頭部與本體整合測試三 87
6.2 路徑追蹤控制器實驗結果 89
第七章 結果與未來展望 95
7.1 結論 95
7.2 未來展望 95
參考文獻 97
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