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研究生:廖立意
研究生(外文):Li-Yi Liao
論文名稱:液晶顯示器基於人眼偏好的影像品質調整迦瑪曲線及反射式液晶顯示器白色色偏之研究
論文名稱(外文):Gamma Adjustment of LCDs based on User’s Preferred Image Quality and Issue of Impure White State on Reflective LCDs
指導教授:謝漢萍謝漢萍引用關係
指導教授(外文):Han-Ping Shieh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:光電工程所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:72
中文關鍵詞:迦瑪曲線影像品質反射式液晶顯示器白色偏移人眼偏好主觀實驗
外文關鍵詞:gamma curveimage qualityreflective LCDswhite shiftuser''s preferencesubjective experiment
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顯示器元件在設計及規格之制定上通常會以人眼的視覺感知為基礎,因此人類的視覺特性在顯示器的發展上扮演著重要的角色。本論文主要的研究方向有二:一是對液晶顯示器迦瑪曲線的校正達到人眼喜好的影像品質,傳統對CRT迦瑪的研究只單純改變系統迦瑪的數值乘積來達到喜好的影像品質,然而液晶顯示器由於在輸出光的方式的不同,因此在液晶顯示器無法以數值方式逼近液晶螢幕本身非線性的輸出關係。因此本論文設計的主觀視覺實驗,以使用者主觀的調整曲線來達到偏好的影像品質,此方法的最大優點之一就是評估的結果與人眼的主觀感知相符,找出gamma有效的提高影像品質,評估的結果可以對主觀的影像品質制定出最佳化的顯示參數,實驗結果可以應用於制定驅動IC規格的參考。
另一方面是研究反射式液晶顯示器背景白色純度不足,造成顯示器影像品質降低,在本論文中以模擬可見光波長範圍內反射頻譜與人眼視覺特性結合產生的顏色,可以了解在不同液晶形式下所造成的白色偏移的程度,並提出可行的方式來補償偏移,達到理想中的白色背景。
Human perception is the basis for defining specification of display devices. Consequently, human visual characteristics play an important role in the development of display devices. There are two subjects studied in this thesis. First, the subjective adjustment of LCDs’ gamma relation is to achieve users’ preferred image quality. Conventional method of gamma correction for a CRT display system only modulates the numerical multiplication of overall gamma to evaluate the image quality. However, LCDs have different illuminant method to reproduce output luminance. Therefore, the intrinsic non-linearity of LCDs cannot be approached by a numerical relation. The optimized gamma relation to reproduce the perceived image quality is conducted via a psychophysical experiment. The major advantage of this evaluative method is that the results are well correlated with subjective human perception. As a consequence, optimal display parameters for subjective image quality can be specified and the experimental results can then be utilized to specify the characteristics of driving IC.
On the other hand, the impure whiteness of reflective LCDs degrades the image quality. In order to comprehend the degree of white shift caused by LC layer, the spectral distribution of reflected light is integrated with the characteristic of human vision functions to calculate the chrominance on the reflective panel. Further a feasible method to compensate the impurity of whiteness is proposed in this thesis.
Table of Contents
Chinese Abstract ………………………………………………………i
Abstract ………………………………………………………….ii
Acknowledgments ……………………………………………………iii
Table of Contents ……………………………………………………iv
Figure Caption ……………………………………………………...vi
List of Tables ……………………………………………………...…ix
Chapter 1 Introduction ………………………………………………..1
1.1 Data presentation displays……………………………………...1
1.1.1 Cathode-ray-tube monitors (CRT monitors)……………..2
1.1.2 Liquid crystal displays (LCDs)…………………………..3
1.2 Motivation and objective of this thesis.……………………5
1.3 Organization of this thesis……………………………………6
Chapter 2 Gamma on Display Technology and Background…………7
2.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………….7
2.2 Gamma in physics ………………………………………………….8
2.2.1 Physical meaning …………………………………………….8
2.2.2 Non-linearity of lightness ……………………………….9
2.3 Gamma correction ………………………………………………..11
2.4 Evaluated methods of image quality ……….……………….18
2.5 Summary ……………………………………………………………..19
Chapter 3 Psychophysical Experiment of Influence on Gamma
Function ………………………………………………...............20
3.1 Experimental method ….………………………………………..20
3.1.1 Experimental setup ……………………………..…………..20
3.1.2 Color saturation ………………………………………………22
3.1.3 Experimental process ...…………………………………….23
3.1.4 Subjects …………………………………………………………29
3.2 Experimental results …………………………………………..30
3.2.1 Subjective adjustment ……………………..….…………..30
3.2.2 Subjective judgment ………...……………………………..37
3.3 Transformation of the curve ………………………………...39
3.3.1 Parameters of Computer Program ………………....……39
3.3.2 Controlled voltages of DACs ……………………………..40
3.4 Summary ………………………………………………………... .44
Chapter 4 Issues of Whiteness on Reflective LCD .…..………46
4.1 Introduction ………..…………………………………………..46
4.2 Color mixing of reflective LCDs ………………………...…48
4.2.1 Assessment of color reproduction ……....….……...48
4.2.2 Colorimetric color reproduction of reflective LCDs 49
4.3 Numerical analyses of reflective LCDs ………….…………53
4.4 Summary …………………………………………….………………66
Chapter 5 Conclusion …………………………………..…………..67
Reference ……………………………………………………....………70
1. J. Whitaker: Electronic Display (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1994) 1st ed., Chap. 3, p. 101.
2. L. D. Silverstein: Color in Electronic Displays, Society for Information Display Seminar Lecture Notes 1 (2000).
3. C. A. Poynton: A technical introduction to digital video (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1996) 1st ed., Chap. 6, p. 91.
4. G. Wyszecki and W.S. Stiles: Color Science: Concepts and methods, quantitative data and formulae (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1982) 2nd ed., Chap. 5, p.494.
5. C. A. Poynton: Gamma and its Disguises: The Nonlinear Mappings of Intensity in Perception, SMPTE Journal, 12 (1993), 1099.
6. A. J. Roufs and M. J. Goossens: The Effect of Gamma on Perceived Image Quality, Int. Display Rsesearch Conf. (1988), 27.
7. R. S. Berns, R. J. Motta, and M. E. Gorzynski: CRT Colorimetry Part I: Theory and practice, Color research and application, 18 (1993) No. 5, 245.
8. B. Wandell and L. D. Silverstein: Digital Color Reproduction: The Science of Color (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2000), 2nd ed., Chap. 2, p. 30.
9. Y. Shimodaira and T. Muraoka: Acceptable Limits of Gamma for a TFT-LCD on Subjective Evaluation of Picture Quality, IEEE Trans. on Consumer Electronics, 41 (1995) No. 3, 550.
10. A. S. Long: Practical approach to Color Management, to be published in SPECTRA the Museum Computer Network magazine, 11 (2000).
11. T. J.Nelson and J. R. Wullert: Electronic information display technologies (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1997) 1st ed., Chap. 3, p. 87.
12. J. Whitaker: Electronic Display (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1994) 1st ed., Chap. 2, p. 71.
13. G. Wyszecki and W.S. Stiles: Color Science: Concepts and methods, quantitative data and formulae (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1982) 2nd ed., Chap. 3, p. 142.
14. C. Osaka: Precise Color Communication, (Minolta Co., Ltd, Japan, 1998), p. 34.
15. T. Tsukada: TFT/LCD: Liquid-Crystal Displays Addressed by Thin-Film Transistors (Japanese Technology Reviews, Tokyo, 1994), p. 33.
16. G. Wyszecki and W.S. Stiles: Color Science: Concepts and methods, quantitative data and formulae (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1982) 2nd ed., Chap. 3, p. 149.
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