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研究生:李宜珍
研究生(外文):Yi-Chen Li
論文名稱:內部行銷及員工工作滿足對員工顧客導向影響
論文名稱(外文):The Study on the Influence of Internal Marketing and Job Satisfaction on Customer Orientation - The Case of Semiconductor Companies
指導教授:褚宗堯褚宗堯引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tzong-Yau Chu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:管理科學學程碩士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:78
中文關鍵詞:內部行銷顧客導向員工工作滿足
外文關鍵詞:internal marketingcustomer orientationjob satisfaction
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無論是服務業或製造業,公司所提供的產品或服務是否能滿足外部顧客,員工與顧客的互動影響極大,公司的服務品質及績效,將由員工的行為表現出來。因此,公司在對外部顧客行銷的同時,顯然亦需要重視內部員工,經由滿足員工的慾望與需求,來提昇滿足外部顧客需求的能力。內部行銷則是公司視員工為內部顧客,針對員工所進行的行銷活動。員工的顧客導向,會影響到顧客對其服務品質的認知。學者認為內部行銷即是用來發展及激勵員工顧客導向的工具。
內部行銷隨著服務業在經濟體系中逐漸增加的比重而受到重視,文獻亦多以服務業為內部行銷之探討對象。事實上,學者亦同意非服務業的產業亦同樣需要它,本研究即以半導體公司為例,希望能藉此驗證內部行銷對半導體公司員工的顧客導向有其正面的影響。
本研究分為兩個階段進行,第一階段透過文獻探討與實務界深入訪談,來深入瞭解內部行銷在半導體公司的實務運作情形,並作為發展內部行銷量表的基礎。第二階段則以問卷調查的方式取得資料,以半導體公司之行銷、業務及客服部門等與客戶有直接接觸的第一線員工,為問卷調查的受訪對象,以檢驗本研究之理論假說。研究結果顯示,員工對公司內部行銷的看法及工作滿足程度的確會因人口統計變數而有所差異,尤其在性別、年齡、婚姻狀況及職位方面呈現較顯著性差異。女性、年輕族群、未婚者、職位較低者對公司的內部行銷同意度較低,工作滿足程度也較低。除此之外,內部行銷、員工工作滿足分別與員工顧客導向的大多數構面呈顯著正相關。為提高員工顧客導向,公司應多致力於與員工充分溝通、提昇員工對工作本身及工作道德的滿足程度。
No matter in service or manufacture industries, the interaction between employees and customers is a vital influential factor to external customer satisfaction. The service quality and company performance are demonstrated by employees’ behavior. By satisfying the needs and wants of its employees, the company can upgrade its capability of satisfying its external customers. Hence, it is necessary to fulfill employees’ needs when conducting marketing activities toward external customers. Internal marketing is the marketing activities of viewing employees as internal customers. Customer orientation of employees will influence customer perception of service qualify. Internal marketing was perceived to be a tool of developing and motivating employees’ customer orientation.
Much of the research attention given by scholars to internal marketing has emerged from service industry literature. In fact, scholars agreed that non-service industries also need internal marketing. In this study, we examined that internal marketing had positive impact on employees’ customer orientation, in the case of semi-conductor companies.
In the first stage of this study, we obtained relevant information of internal marketing in semi-conductor industry to develop the questionnaire via literature review and interviewing with employees. In the second stage, we interviewed front-line employees who are marketing, sales and customer service people in several semi-conductor companies with questionnaires. The research result shows that the employees’ perception toward internal marketing and job satisfaction is different significantly by demographics, including sex, age, marital status and job title. Female, young , single and lower level employees have lower satisfaction. In addition, internal marketing and job satisfaction have positive relationship with customer orientation. Therefore, in order to enhance customer orientation among employees, companies have to be devoted to the communication with employees, increase employees’ satisfaction level of job itself and job morality.
第一章 緒論……………………………………………………………….1
1.1 研究背景與動機…………………………………………………………1
1.2 研究目的…………………………………………………………………2
1.3 研究流程…………………………………………………………………3
1.4 研究範圍與對象 ……………………………………………………….4
第二章 文獻探討………………………………………………………………6
2.1 內部行銷…………………………………………………………………6
2.1.1 內部行銷定義………………………...………………………………6
2.1.2 內部行銷活動…………………………………………………………9
2.2 員工工作滿足………………………………………………………….12
2.2.1 工作滿足意涵……………………………………………………….13
2.2.2 工作滿足的構面…………………………………………………….13
2.2.3 工作滿足的衡量………………………………………………………13
2.2.4 內部行銷與員工工作滿足………………………………………….14
2.3 顧客導向…………………………….………………………………….16
2.3.1 顧客導向的定義………………………………………………….16
2.3.1 顧客導向的特性…………………………………………………….18
第三章 研究方法…………………………….………………………………19
3.1 研究架構……………………………………………………………….19
3.2 研究假設……………………………………………………………….20
3.3 研究步驟……………………………………………………………….22
3.4 研究變項之操作性定義……………………………………………….22
3.4.1 員工知覺的內部行銷……………………………………………… 22
3.4.2 員工工作滿足…………………………………………………….27
3.4.3 員工的顧客導向……………………………………………………..27
3.5 資料分析方法……………………………...………………………….28
3.5.1 敘述統計…………………………………………………………….28
3.5.2 因素分析………………………………………………………………29
3.5.3 變異數分析……………………………………………………………29
3.5.4 相關分析…………………………………………………………….29
3.5.5 迴歸分析…………………………………………………………….29
第四章 研究結果與討論……………………………………………….……30
4.1 樣本特徵……………………………………………………………….30
4.1.1 公司產業及規模分布…………………………………………………30
4.1.2 人口特徵………………………………………………………………31
4.1.3 工作特徵………………………………………………………………31
4.2 變數的信度與效度………………………………………………………33
4.2.1 內部行銷量表…………………………………………………………33
4.2.2 員工工作滿足量表………………………………………………….36
4.2.3 顧客導向量表……………………………………………………….38 4.3 人口統計變數的差異性分析……………………………………………40
4.3.1 不同人口統計變數在內部行銷上的的差異性分析…………………40
4.3.2 不同人口統計變數在員工工作滿足上的的差異性分析……………44
4.3.3 差異性分析結果彙總……………………………………………….47
4.4 相關分析……………………………………………………………….49
4.4.1 內部行銷與員工的顧客導向間之相關分析…………………………49
4.4.2 員工工作滿足與員工的顧客導向間之相關分析……………………53
第五章 結論與建議…………………………………………………………57
5.1 結論………………………………………………………………………57
5.1.1 人口統計變數對內部行銷及員工工作滿足之影響…………………57
5.1.2 內部行銷對員工顧客導向之影響……………………………………59
5.1.3 員工工作滿足對員工顧客導向之影響……………………………59
5.2 建議………………………………………………………………………60
5.3 研究限制…………………………………………………………………61
5.4 未來相關學術研究建議…………………………………………………62
一、 中文部分
1. 吳志淵,「企業內部行銷之探索性研究-以國內某石化廠為例」,國立中正大學企業管理學系研究所碩士論文,民87年。
2. 吳培瑜,「人力資源發展部門實施內部行銷作為之研究」,國立台灣師範大學工業科技教育學系碩士論文,民89年。
3. 李國濱,「核心能力及競爭優勢形成與高科技高競爭產業群聚資源關係之探討-以半導體製造業為例」,國立成功大學企業管理學系研究所碩士論文,民86年。
4. 何明勳,「人力資源管理滿意度、員工工作滿足與顧客滿意度之探討」,私立靜宜大學企業管理學系研究所碩士論文,民88年。
5. 周繼文,「服務品質量表發展方法與程序」,國立交通大學工業工程研究所碩士論文,民85年。
6. 周逸衡、關復勇,「服務業內部行銷導向之探討」,第三屆服務業管理研討會論文集,國立政治大學,民86年。
7. 梁殷禎,「服務員工知覺之內部行銷作為、角色知覺與顧客導向間關係之研究-以旅館業為例」,國立中山大學企業管理研究所碩士論文,民88年。
8. 崔來意、溫今豐,「高科技公司女性專業人員-家庭衝突,工作倦怠及離職意願關係之研究」,台灣高科技產業人力問題研討會,國立中央大學,民90年。
9. 黃杏文,「內部行銷導向作為與組織承諾關析之研究-以護理人員為例」,國立中山大學企業管理學系研究所碩士論文,民86年。
10. 黃淑琴,「台灣壽險業內部行銷與經營績效之關聯性探討」,私立靜宜大學企業管理學系研究所碩士論文,民87年。
11. 葉梅桂,「藉內部行銷以建立企業競爭優勢-台灣商業銀行業之比較個案分析」,國立台灣大學商學研究所碩士論文,民84年。
12. 董玉娟、林義屏、黃俊英,「內部行銷在人力資源管理上的應用」,勞工行政126期,民87年。
13. 韓建玲,「內部行銷對顧客導向影響之研究-以民營銀行業為例」,國立中山大學人力資源研究所碩士論文,民86年。
二、 英文部分
1. Anthony J. Rucci, Steven P. Kirn and Richard T. Quinn, “The employee-customer-profit chain at sears” Harvard Business Review, Jan/Feb, 1998
2. Bruce Pfau, Denis Detzel, and Andrew Geller, “Satisfy your internal customers” The Journal of Business Strategy, pp9-13, Nov/Dec. 1991
3. Berry, Leonard L; Parasuraman, A Marketing services: competing through quality The free press, A division of mMacmillan, Inc., 1991
4. Berry, Leonard L; Parasuraman, A "services marketing start from within" Marketing Management, Winter92
5. Barnes, J. "The role of internal marketing: if the staff won''t buy it, why should the customer?" Irish Marketing Review, 4(2), pp.11-21
6. Bradley R Barnes; D S Morris, "Revising quality awareness through internal marketing: An exploratory study among French and English medium-sized enterprises" Total Quality Mangement, Jul 2000
7. Brett Collins, Adrian Payne, “Internal marketing: a new perspective for HRM” European Management Journal, Vol. 9 No. 3 pp261-269, 1991
8. Constance A. Bak, Leslie H. Vogt, William R. George and I. Richard Greentree, “Management by team: a innovative tool for running a service organization through internal marketing” Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 8 No.1 pp37-47, 1994
9. D. J. Wasmer, Gorden C. Bruner II, “Using organizational culture to design internal marketing strategies” Vol. 5 No. 1 pp35-46, 1991
10. Dennis J. Cahill, “The managerial implications of the learning organization: a new tool for internal marketing” Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 9 No. 4 pp43-51, 1995
11. G. Lynn Shostack, “Designing services that deliver” Harvard Business Review, pp133-39, Jan/Feb 1984
12. Gaven, David A. Managing Quality New York, The Free Press, 1988
13. Gilbert D. Harrell, Matthew F. Fors, “ Internal marketing of a service” Journal of Marketing Management, 21 pp299-306, 1992
14. Greene, W., Walls, G. & Schrest, L., "Internal marketing: the key to external marketing success" Journal of Services Marketing, 8(4), pp5-13, 1994
15. Heskett, James, Sasser, W. Earl, and Hart, C.W.L., Service breakthroughs New York, The Free Press, 1990
16. Heskett, J. L., Jones, T.O., Loveman, G.W., Sasser, W.E. and Schlesinger, L.A., “Putting the Service-Profit Chain to Work”, Harvard Business Reviews, March-April, pp. 164-174, 1994
17. I.N. Lings and R.F. Brooks, "Implementing and measuring the effectiveness of internal marketing" Journal of Marketing Management, 14 325-351, 1998
18. I.N. Lings, "Managing Service quality with internal marketing schematics" Long Range Planning, Vol 32, No. 4, 452-463, 1999
19. Joseph, W. Benoy, "Internal marketing build quality" Journal of Health Care Marketing, Spring, 1996
20. Chastson, “Internal customer mangement and service gaps within the UK manufacturing sector” International Journal of Operations and Production, Vol. 64, No. 1, pp12-37, 1994
21. K. Douglas Hoffman, Thomas n. Ingram, “Service provider job satisfaction and customer-oriented performance” The Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 6 No. 2 pp68-78, spring 1992
22. Leyland F. Pitt; Susan K. Foreman, "Internal marketing role in organizations: a transaction cost perspective" Journal of Business Research 44,25-36, 1999
23. Mohammed Rafiq and Pervaiz K. Ahmed “ The scope of internal marketing : defining the boundary between marketing and human resource management” Journal of Marketing Mangement, Vol 9, pp219-232, 1993
24. Nigel Piercy and Neil Morgan “ Internal marketing — the missing half of the marketing programme” Long Range Planning, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp82-93, 1991
25. Nigel Piercy and Neil Morgan “ Internal marketing : making marketing happen” Marketing Intelligence & Planning Vol. 8, No. 1, pp4-6, 1990
26. Parasuraman, A., Valarie A. Zeithaml and Leonard L. Berry, “ SERVQUAL:A multiple item scale for measuring customer perceptions of service quality” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 64, spring, pp13-40, 1988
27. Parasuraman, A., Valarie A. Zeithaml and Leonard L. Berry, “ A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research” Journal of Marketing (fall) pp41-50, 1985
28. Pascale G Quester; Amanda Kelly, "Internal marketing practices in the Australian financial sector: An exploratory study" Journal of Applied Management Study, Dec 1999
29. Patriya Tansuhaj, Donna Randall, Jim McCullough, “A services marketing management model: integrating internal and external marketing functions” The journal of services marketing, Vol. 2, No. 1Winter, 1998
30. Patriya Tansuhaj, Donna Randall, Jim McCullough, “Appling the internal marketing concept within large organizations: as applied to a credit union” Journal of Professional Services Marketing, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1991
31. “Company measures internal customer satisfaction” Quality Progress, June, p14, 1994
32. Robert F. Lush, Thomas Boyt, Drue Schuler, “Employees as customers: the role of social controls and employee socialization in developing patronage” Journal of Business Research, Vol. 35 pp179-187, 1996
33. Roger Hallowell, Leonard A. Schlesinger, Jeffery Zornitsky “ Internal service quality, customer and job satisfaction: Linkages and implications for management” Human Resources Planning,Vol. 19, No. 2 pp20-31, 1996
34. Roger F Brooks; Ian N Lings; Martina A Botschen, “Internal marketing and customer driven wavefronts” The Service Industries Journal, Oct 1999
35. Ronald E. Michaels and Ralph L. Day, “Measuring customer orientation of salespeople: a replication with industrial buyers” Journal of Marketing Research, Nov. pp443-446, 1985
36. Saxe, Robert, and Weitz, Barton A., “ The SOCO Scale: A measure of the customer orientation of sales people” Journal of Market Research, Vol 20, August, p344, 1982
37. Scott W. Kelly “ Developing customer orientation among service employees” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science Vol 20, No. 1, pp27-36, 1992
38. Susan K. Foreman and Arthur H. Money, “Internal marketing: concepts, measurement and application” Journal of Marketing Management, Vol. 11 pp755-768, 1995
39. Tim R. V. Davis, “Satisfying internal customers: the link to external customer satiscation” Planning Review, Jan/Feb, 1992
40. Timothy W. Firnstahl. “My employee are my service guarantee” Harvard Business Review, pp28-32, Jul/Aug. 1989
41. Walter E. Greene, Gary D. walls and Larry J. Schrest, “Internal marketing: the key to external marketing success” Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 8 No. 4 pp5-13, 1994
42. “Pricing for profit: The 1% solution” HIDA Management Seminar, Boston, September, 1983
43. Charles D. Schewe, Alexander Watson Hiam, The portable MBA in marketing P378, 1999
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1. 內部行銷導向、組織承諾、工作滿意與學校效能關係之研究─以台南地區國民小學為例
2. 內部行銷、工作壓力、工作士氣、工作滿足與工作績效關係之研究—以台灣省各縣市警察局為例
3. 員工內部行銷知覺、企業文化差異知覺與組織承諾之關聯性研究-以集團企業子公司員工為研究對象
4. 台灣壽險業內部行銷與經營績效之關聯性探討
5. 內部行銷對顧客導向行為影響之研究--以民營銀行業為例
6. 內部行銷導向作為與組織承諾關係之研究-以護理人員為例
7. 服務員工知覺之內部行銷作為、角色知覺與顧客導向間關係之研究─以旅館業為例
8. 內部行銷與領導風格對工作滿意度及顧客導向行為影響之研究―以桃園縣消防局為例
9. 服務品質量表發展方法與程序之研究
10. 內部行銷、工作滿足、組織承諾與顧客導向服務關係之研究—以主題遊樂園為例
11. 企業內部行銷之探索性研究:以國內某石化廠為例
12. 人力資源發展部門實施內部行銷作為之研究
13. 核心能力及競爭優勢形成與高科技高競爭產業群聚資源關係之探討-以半導體製造業為例--
14. 探討組織公平、內部行銷、心理契約、專業承諾對組織公民行為關聯性之研究-以嘉義市警察局為例
15. 內部行銷作為與情緒能力對服務態度與工作績效影響之研究-以軍用機場航行管制人員為例