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研究生:王先念
研究生(外文):WANG, HSIEN-NIEN
論文名稱:公立中學教師的性別/婚姻與其工作價值之關係--「面向分析」的運用
論文名稱(外文):The Relationship between Work Values and Gender/Marriage of Public High School Teachers--An Application of Facet Analysis
指導教授:王耀德王耀德引用關係
指導教授(外文):WANG, YAU-DE
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:管理科學學程碩士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:74
中文關鍵詞:性別婚姻工作價值中學教師面向分析
外文關鍵詞:gendermarriagework valuehigh school teacherfacet analysis
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本文進行探索式的研究,嘗試建立公立中學教師的工作價值結構,檢驗及應用「面向分析」來架構公立中學教師的工作價值。
工作價值基本定義為在領有報酬的工作中,人們對不同的特質和結果冀求的程度。本文將工作價值視為一「領域空間」做討論。性別與工作價值的關係概分有性別意識型態及機會結構兩種觀點。婚姻與工作價值概分為三類:並重類、工作取向類及家庭取向類。
「面向」的基本定義為社會科學研究理論構念的空間觀念,導出「先驗定義」將領域空間裡組成面向的條目系統化地嵌入構圖句中,以最小空間分析法測得選項間之相關性(相關係數),再利用面向化最小空間分析電腦程式將選項以「點」的形式繪入預設的面向空間選擇。
本次研究依探索問題,討論性別、婚姻、及性別與婚姻的交互作用對公立中學教師工作價值結構的影響,共獲得十四項的發現。研究發現的綜合結論如下:
結構上而言,女性公立中學教師較趨近(或重視)「情意」類的工作價值(人際關係);男性教師較趨近(或重視)「認知」類的工作價值(個人取向)。未婚公立中學教師較趨近(或重視)「認知」類及「工具」類的工作價值;已婚教師較趨近(或重視)「情意」類的工作價值。
就工作價值項目而言,男性教師較重視「學校」、「報酬」、「成就感」、「有意義的工作」和「獨立自主」;女性教師較重視「工作的趣味」、「對社會的貢獻」、「同事」、「上司」和「回饋」。未婚教師較重視「回饋」、「工作的趣味」、「個人的成長」、「成就感」、「有意義的工作」和「獨立自主」;已婚教師較重視「學校」、「對社會的貢獻」、「同事」、「上司」和「報酬」。
在台灣關於組織行為的基礎研究中,本文可能是第一次以「面向分析」作為研究方法,獲得類似的radex圖形結果,證明「面向分析」理論的普遍性;本文並嘗試研究「婚姻」變數對工作價值結構的影響。
研究限制為「面向分析」的24項目工作價值問卷已然發展純熟,但是是否適用於所有職場領域或文化,頗可商榷。進行工作價值「面向分析」研究者若欲調整項目內容,須先經過嚴謹的文獻討論和驗證蒐集樣本資料,並建議使用面談方式。「工作價值」研究可以無限延伸;可選擇不同職場領域、不同的自變數、或進行比較研究。
This study is proceeding to an exploratory research about the work value structures of the public high school teachers in Taiwan with an application of "facet analysis". A basic definition of "work value" is to indicate the extent to which people desire a variety of specific qualities and outcomes from their paid work. "Work value" is regarded as a "universe" in the study. According to literatures, there are "gender ideology perspective" and "structuralist perspective" discussing the relationship between gender and work values. In marriage-work value relationship, there are dual-career, career-job and career-family categories.
"Facet" is a basic concept of "universe of construct" in social science studies. With a "priori definition", the elements of the universe is embedded systematically into the "mapping sentence". Then with the help of "faceted smallest space analysis" computer program the mapping results are obtained.
The effects of gender/marriage on work value structures of public high school teachers are revealed as: (1) Structurally, female teachers are more affectively-oriented while male teachers are more cognitively-oriented; single teachers are more cognitively and instrumentally-oriented while married teachers are more affectively-oriented. (2) According to individual work value items, male teachers value more on "school", "pay", "achievement", "meaningful work" and "independence", while female teachers value more on "job interest", "contribution to society", "co-workers", "supervisor", and "feedback". Single teachers value more on "feedback", "job interest", "personal growth", "achievement", "meaningful work" and "independence", while married teachers value more on "school", "contribution to society", "co-workers", "supervisor", and "pay".
This study is probably the first try of the application of "facet analysis" in Taiwan, and it successfully proves the universal character of the theory. However, it is argued that the 24-item WVQ is sustained in all studies in different cultures or work fields. Further studies on work value structures are suggested continuing with different work fields, different variables and comparison studies.
Index
Chinese Abstract ……………………………………………………………. i
English Abstract ……………………………………………………………. ii
Acknowledgements ……………………………………………………………. iii
Index ……………………………………………………………. iv
Table Index ……………………………………………………………. vi
Figure Index ……………………………………………………………. vii
I Introduction……………………………………………… 1
1.1 Background and Motivation of the Study……………….. 1
1.2 Purpose of the Study……………………………………... 2
II Literature Review………………………………………… 4
2.1 Work Values……………………………………………… 4
2.1.1 Defining the term "Values"………………………………. 4
2.1.2 Defining Work Values……………………………………. 5
2.2 Facet Analysis 7
2.2.1 Defining the Work Values Domain for Facet Analysis…... 8
2.2.1.1 Facet A--Modality of Outcome…………………………... 8
2.2.1.2 Facet B--System-Performance Contingency……………... 9
2.2.2 The Relationship between Modality of Outcome Facet and System-Performance Contingency Facet 9
2.3 Gender and Work Values…………………………………. 10
2.3.1 Gender Ideology Perspective…………………………….. 11
2.3.2 Structuralist Perspective………………………………….. 13
2.3.3 Relating Gender and Work Values to Facet Analysis……. 14
2.4 Marriage and Work Values……………………………….. 14
2.4.1 In Relation to Career-Marriage Aspirations……………... 15
2.4.2 Relating Marriage and Work Values to Facet Analysis….. 16
III Research Theory and Exploratory Questions……………. 17
3.1 Research Theory…………………………………………. 17
3.1.1 The Basic Idea of Facet………………………………….. 18
3.1.2 The Theoretical Concept of Facet Analysis……………… 18
3.1.3 The Mapping Sentence…………………………………… 20
3.2 Research Predictions and Questions……………………... 21
3.2.1 Research Predictions--the Application of Facet Analysis.. 21
3.2.2 Exploratory Questions…………………………………… 22
IV Research Method………………………………………… 24
4.1 Subject…………………………………………………… 24
4.2 Data Collecting…………………………………………… 25
4.3 The Questionnaire………………………………………... 27
4.4 Smallest Space Analysis…………………………………. 29
V Results and Analysis……………………………………... 32
5.1 Facet Analysis Results…………………………………… 32
5.2 Result Analysis…………………………………………... 32
VI Discussion and Conclusion………………………………. 42
6.1 Result Discussion………………………………………… 42
6.1.1 The Effects of Gender on Work Values of Public High School Teachers…………………………………………... 42
6.1.2 The Effects of Marriage on Work Values of Public High School Teachers…………………………………………... 45
6.1.3 The Effect of the Interaction of Gender Differences and Marriage on Work Values of Public High School Teachers.. 46
6.1.3.1 Single Males vs. Single Females…………………………. 47
6.1.3.2 Married Males vs. Married Females……………………... 48
6.1.3.3 Single Males vs. Married Males…………………………. 48
6.1.3.4 Single Females vs. Married Females……………………... 49
6.1.4 A Summary of Discussion……………………………….. 51
6.2 Theoretical and Managerial Implications………………… 51
6.2.1 Theoretical Implications…..……………………………… 51
6.2.2 Managerial Implications………………………………….. 53
6.3 Research Limitations……………………………………... 55
6.4 Suggestions……………………………………………….. 55
References ……………………………………………………………. 57
Appendix 1 ……………………………………………………………. 65
Appendix 2 ……………………………………………………………. 67
Appendix 3 …………………………………………………………….. 71
Autobiography ……………………………………………………………. 74
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