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研究生:陳文瑞
研究生(外文):Chen, Wen-Ruei
論文名稱:寬頻用戶端閘道器:設計,實作與效能量測
論文名稱(外文):Broadband Residential Gateway:Design, Implementation and Benchmarking
指導教授:林 盈 達
指導教授(外文):Ying-Dar, Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:電資學院學程碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:47
中文關鍵詞:用戶端閘道器內嵌式系統系統單晶片
外文關鍵詞:residential gatewayhome gatewaytelecommunication servicesystem-on-a-chipembedded platformembedded system design
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用戶端閘道器是一個在硬體的運算平台上的軟體應用,它可以提供網路連接與增進家電設備的自動化與智能化,以達成智慧型住宅之願景。
在本論文中,我們將探討實作一個符合規格的用戶端閘道器之過程。它包括(1)考量與訂定產品規格、(2)系統架構之設計與原型實作、(3)系統效能之評估與調較。硬體的平台是一顆高度整合的晶片(SOC),此顆晶片主要包括一個MIPS處理器的核心,一個Ethernet MAC控制器,一個ADSL DSP Engine,一個串列阜,及一些周邊設備。主要實作的軟體功能包括橋接器,NAT,DHCP,SNMP,TFTP,Web Server以及命令列介面與檔案系統等。此外,我們也將探討不同的軟體設計,對系統效能所造成的影響包括(1) 軟體的架構、(2) 輸出入資料暫存的架構、(3) 橋接器的設計: 直接轉送或暫存後再轉送。
最後,我們將展示實作寬頻用戶端閘道器的原型及其功能,並展示所測量之數據與結果。由測試結果,我們發現(1)與好的架構比較,較差架構之總處理量僅有其3.5%。(2) 動態分配暫存空間較固定分配有效率。(3) 直接處理封包較暫存後再處理在低封包率時有效率,但是若傳輸速度提升到某個極限,例如4000封包/秒,暫存後再處理較直接處理封包有效率。這些結果有助於未來類似產品之設計。

A residential gateway is a software application hosted on a computing platform. It offers device-networking functionality and increases the intelligence of a home.
This thesis discusses the process by which a residential gateway is developed. The process includes (1) survey and definition of the system’s specification, (2) architecture design and implementation (3) performance evaluation and regulation. The hardware platform of the residential gateway uses a highly integrated system-on-a-chip which integrates a MIPS processor core, an Ethernet MAC, an ADSL DSP engine and various peripheral devices. The major software features implemented on the residential gateway include bridging, NAT, DHCP, SNMP, TFTP, a web server, command line shell and file system. The performance of the new design is explored addressing (1) software architecture, (2) I/O and buffering architecture, (3) cut-through and store-and-forward bridging.
Finally, a prototype of the residential gateway is presented and pertinent experimental results are shown. Test result reveal that (1) unlike with good architecture, the throughput of the system is only 3.5% with poor architecture; (2) the dynamic buffer location architecture is more efficient than the fixed buffer location architecture, and (3) directly processing the received packets is more efficient then the store-and—forward mechanism. However, the throughput of the store-and-forward mechanism is better than that of directly processing at a transmission rate above 4000 packets per second. These experimental results are helpful in designing other, similar products.

BROADBAND RESIDENTIAL GATEWAY: II
摘要 IV
ABSTRACT V
誌謝 VII
CONTENTS VIII
TABLES X
FIGURES XI
CHAPTER 1 1
INTRODUCTION 1
CHAPTER 2 6
SYSTEM REQUIREMENT AND ARCHITECTURE 6
2.1 SYSTEM DESIGN ISSUES AND OBJECTIVES: 6
2.2 HARDWARE ARCHITECTURE OF RESIDENTIAL GATEWAY: 8
2.3 SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE OF RESIDENTIAL GATEWAY: 11
2.3.1 Define a software architecture and software specification: 11
2.3.2 System boot up and device drivers development 13
2.3.3 Kernel /OS selecting, porting and development 13
2.3.4 Protocol stacks porting and development 14
2.3.5 Applications porting and development 16
CHAPTER 3 20
SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 20
3.1 SYSTEM BOOT UP PROCEDURE: 20
3.2 DEVICE DRIVERS IMPLEMENTATION AND BUFFER MANAGEMENT: 23
3.3 IEEE 802.1D BRIDGING SOFTWARE MODULE: 24
3.4 FIRMWARE UPGRADE PROCEDURE 25
3.5 IMPLEMENTATION A RAM FILE SYSTEM 26
CHAPTER 4 28
PERFORMANCE BENCHMARKING AND TURNING 28
4.1 ARCHITECTURE ISSUES: 28
4.2 I/O AND BUFFERING IN DEVICE DRIVERS: 32
4.3 CUT-THROUGH OR STORE-AND-FORWARD BRIDGING: 35
CHAPTER 5 38
SYSTEM DEMONSTRATION 38
CHAPTER 6 42
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK 42
6.1 CURRENT STATUS AND CONCLUSION: 42
6.2 TREND AND FUTURE WORK: 43
REFERENCES 44

[1] “How does ADSL work”, white paper, http://www.orckit.com/orckit_dsl_center.html, on-line, 1998
[2] Ioannis Kompatsiaris, Michael G. Strintizis and Iakovos Orfanos, “Using Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) For Fast Internet And Multimedia Services”, Consumer Electronics, 2000. ICCE. 2000 Digest of Technical Papers. International Conference on 2000, Page(s): 74 -75
[3] Holliday, C.R., “The residential gateway”, IEEE Spectrum, Volume: 34 Issue: 5, May 1997, Page(s): 29 —31
[4] Li Gong, “A Software architecture for Open Service Gateway”, IEEE Internet Computing , Volume: 5 Issue: 1 , Jan.-Feb. 2001 Page(s): 64 —70
[5] Robin Bhagat, “Software Design Methodology for System-On-Chip”, Embedded Systems Conference, www.esconline.com, Fall 1998, Class 541
[6] Dominic Sweetman, “See MIPS Run”, Chapter 2.8 Basic Address Space, p36 — p 39
[7] Nucleus PLUS Internals, Chapter 1 Introduction, Page(s):2-3
[8] Shiuh-Pyng Shieh; Fu-Shen Ho; Yu-Lun Huang; Jia-Ning Luo , “Network address translators: effects on security protocols and applications in the TCP/IP stack” , IEEE Internet Computing , Volume: 4 Issue: 6 , Nov.-Dec. 2000, Page(s): 42 -49
[9] The IP Network Address Translator (NAT), RFC 1631
[10] “The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)”, RFC 1661
[11] Timothy C. Kwok, “Residential Broadband Architecture Over ADSL and G.lite (G.992.2): PPP Over ATM”, Kwok, T.C. IEEE Communications Magazine , Volume: 37 Issue: 5 , May 1999, Page(s): 84 -89
[12] David Ginsburg, “Implementing ADSL”, Addison-Wesley Pub Co; ISBN: 0201657600, Chapter 4, Page(s)156-159, July 1999
[13] TR-012, “Broadband Service Architecture for Access to Legacy Data Networks over ADSL Issue 1”, ADSL Forum www.adsl.com, June 1998
[14] David Stepner, Nagarajan Rajan, David Hui, “Embedded Application Design Using a Real-Time OS”, Embedded system programming, March 1999, Page(s): 152 -156
[15] Kenneth H. Peters, “Software Development and Debug for System-On-A-Chip”, Embedded Systems Conference, www.esconline.com, Spring 1999, Class 309
[16] Umberto Properzi, Lorenzo Fasanetti, “A high speed system-on-chip SW architecture”, Embedded Systems Conference, www.esconline.com, San Francisco 2001, Class 209
[17] “Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol”, RFC2131
[18] ”The TFTP Protocol (Revision 2)”, RFC 1350
[19] “Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1”, RFC2616
[20] “Simple Network Management Protocol”, RFC
[21] “A Method for Transmitting PPP Over Ethernet” (PPPoE), RFC 2516
[22] “IEEE Standards for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks: Media Access Control (MAC) Bridges”, IEEE Std 802.1D-1990, American National Standards Institute
[23] Willam Gatliff, “ The How-to’s of Flash: Implementing Downloadable Firmware with Flash Memory”, Embedded Systems Conference, www.esconline.com, Fall 1998, Class 349
[24] McManus, J.; Amin-Salehi, B.; Lew, E.; Sistanizadeh, K., Broadband to the home: a Bell Atlantic perspective, Community Networking Proceedings, 1997 Fourth International Workshop on , 1997 Page(s): 25 -30
[25] Saito, T.; Tomoda, I.; Takabatake, Y.; Arni, J.; Teramoto, K., “Home gateway architecture and its implementation”, Consumer Electronics, IEEE Transactions on
Volume: 46 Issue: 4, Nov. 2000, Page(s): 1161 —1166

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