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研究生:吳孟玲
研究生(外文):Wu Meng-Ling
論文名稱:組織創建、組織死亡、及產業變遷之生態研究
論文名稱(外文):An Ecological Study of Organizational Founding, Organizational Mortality, and Industrial Evolution
指導教授:林月雲林月雲引用關係蔡明宏蔡明宏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lin Yeh-YunTsai Ming-Hung
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:企業管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:108
中文關鍵詞:組織生態組織創建組織死亡產業變遷
外文關鍵詞:Organizational EcologyOrganizational FoundingOrganizational MortalityIndustrial Evolution
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:16
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  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:3
本研究以組織生態理論為基礎,探討「組織創建」、「組織死亡」、與「產業變遷」三項議題。研究對象包括石材製品製造業、自行車製造製造業、自行車零件製造業之1903家廠商,觀測期間涵蓋1964年至2000年。本研究以負二項迴歸模型(Negative Binomial Regression Model)檢視影響組織創建的因素、以靜態分析(Static Analysis)及動態分析(Dynamic Analysis)檢視影響組織死亡的因素、並以專家訪談法(expert opinion method)探討產業之變遷。
組織創建率之研究結果顯示,三個產業均存在同業創建與組織創建率之倒U形效果,亦即前一年組織創建數目的多寡不僅影響環境資源的競爭程度,亦會傳遞組織生存條件之訊號。此外,本研究亦發現自行車製造業之密度增加會促進自行車零件製造業之成長,而自行車零件製造業之密度增加對自行車製造業之成長並無顯著影響,此結果顯示兩集群之間的相互作用係屬片利共生的型態。
而組織死亡率之研究結果可獲致四點結論,首先是前一年的創建活動的大量增加會使組織死亡的可能性提高,此結果顯示一窩蜂的投資活動會使資源競爭的程度加劇,增加組織的不利生存性;其次是組織死亡之密度依賴效果,顯示集群密度對組織死亡率具顯著的U形效果;再者,組織創建時的密度愈高,將愈不利於組織之生存,此結果顯示創建時期之高密度會導致環境資源不足,使組織不易擁有強健的先天體質,故對組織的存續發展具有負向效果;最後則是大型組織對集群競爭壓力的衝擊較大,此結果意謂者大型組織較易取得得環境資源、經濟規模、及經濟範疇等優勢,所以對集群競爭的影響力較大。
此外,亦由利基出現、擴大、萎縮等觀點,說明石材製品製造業之組織形式的興起及演變,結果顯示集群成員面對之總體利基萎縮時,組織會蒐尋替代的維生方式,例如致力於個體利基的提昇,或是遷移至能與其個體利基配適的環境,而不會以死亡回應利基之萎縮。最後,本研究亦對管理意涵與未來之研究建議提出討論。
第一章、緒論…………………………………… 1
一、研究背景………………………………………………1
二、研究目的…………………………………………………4
三、章節結構……………………………………………………6
第二章、文獻探討……………………………………………………7
一、1970年代後期之組織理論………………………………8
(一)交易成本理論…………………………….8
(二)制度理論……………………………………9
(三)組織生態理論……………………………………11
(四)資源依賴理論…………………………………………12
二、生態研究之重要議題……………………………………15
(一)產業變遷………………………………………15
(二)組織創建……………………………………………………16
(三)組織死亡………………………………………………23
第三章、研究方法…………………………………………34
一、研究對象……………………………34
二、操作性定義…………………………………34
三、資料結構…………………………………………38
四、分析架構…………………………………………38
五、分析方法…………………………………………40
(一)以負二項迴歸模型分析組織創建率……………40
(二)以靜態分析檢視組織死亡率……………………41
(三)以動態分析檢視組織死亡率……………………42
(四)以敘述統計及專家訪談法探討產業變遷…………48
第四章、研究結果………………………………………49
一、組織創建之實證結果………………………………49
(一)集群密度…………………………………………49
(二)前一年的同業創建………………………………49
(三)前一年的同業死亡…………………………50
(四)跨集群的相互作用………………………………50
二、組織死亡之靜態分析結果………………………52
(一)制度環境…………………………………………52
(二)同業死亡…………………………………………53
(三)組織改變次數……………………………………53
(四)集群密度………………………………………53
(五)組織年齡與規模………………………54
三、組織死亡之動態分析結果……………56
(一)經濟環境………………………………56
(二)集群動態………………………………57
(三)集群密度………………………………57
(四)組織年齡……………………………58
(五)組織規模…………………………………58
四、產業變遷……………………………61
(一)敘述統計…………………………61
(二)利基之分析………………………65
第五章、討論與結論…………………71
一、組織創建率………………………72
二、組織死亡…………………………75
(一)石材產業…………………………………75
(二)自行車產業………………………………77
三、產業變遷…………………………………83
第六章、研究意涵與貢獻……………………85
一、研究意涵…………………………………85
(一)管理意涵…………………………………85
(二)學術意涵…………………………………91
二、研究貢獻…………………………………92
第七章、後續研究建議與限制……………95
一、後續研究建議……………………………95
二、限制………………………………………95
參考文獻…………………………………97
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