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研究生:李信螢
研究生(外文):Hsin-Ying Li
論文名稱:個人創造力、組織創新氣候與創新績效相關之研究
論文名稱(外文):The influence of Individual creativity and Organizational innovation climate on Product Innovation performance.
指導教授:林明杰林明杰引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ming-Ji Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:企業管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:個人創造力組織創新氣候創新類型產品創新績效
外文關鍵詞:Individual creativityOrganizational innovation climateinnovativenessproduct innovation performance
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21世紀是以科技創新為主導的世紀。以通訊技術、生物技術、奈米科技為代表的新科技革命,正在深刻地改變傳統的經濟結構、生產組織和經營模式。台灣產業的發展,也逐漸轉化為創新驅動的經營,他們所依附的不再是土地資產和勤奮的勞動力,而是憑藉著無法取代的知識資本如智慧、腦力以及創新能力。換言之,這一切成功的經驗,皆源自於他們善用人類珍貴的「創新能力」,將其轉化為組織中一切有價值事物的原動力,甚至讓「創新能力」取代傳統的土地、勞力、金融資本,成為企業追求創新與挑戰的力量。
創新不僅僅是組織發展的原動力,更是建立組織競爭優勢的重要因素。策略大師 Porter (1990)認為:理論上繁榮來自於競爭力,而創新能力就是提升競爭力的不二法門。而企業企圖改善自身的創新能力,則必須先探求創新能力的來源,究竟來自何處? 組織內的”人員”及”創新氣候”便是本研究欲探討的答案。
因此,本研究試圖以個人創造力及組織創新氣候為創新能力的來源,探討兩者對產品創新績效的影響。此外,本研究加入創新類型此一情境因素,探討是否會對產品創新績效有不同的效果。
為了瞭解上述推理是否符合真實情況,所以本研究以問卷方式,對國內高科技產業,包括半導體(12家)、電子零件(8家)、光電(4家)、電腦週邊設備(8家)、通訊器材等(8家),進行實證研究,共計發放400份問卷,最後總計回收有效問卷96份,接著以SPSS 10.0進行嚴謹的統計分析,以驗證分研究的假設。
分析結果顯示,擁有高度創造力特質的員工搭配高度支持的組織創新氣候,所研發的產品擁有最高的創新績效,相對的,低度創造力的員工,即使組織給與高度的創新支持,其績效仍無顯著提升。此外,擁有高組織創新氣候、低個人創造力的組織創新情境,較低組織創新氣候、高個人創造力的情境下,有著較佳的產品創新績效。證實本研究所提出的假設,組織創新氣候對產品創新績效的影響大於個人創造力。
研究結果也顯示,創新類型不同的專案,在特定的創新情境下,有著顯著的創新績效;創新程度較高的突破性產品,搭配較高的個人創造力,會有較高的產品創新績效,相對的,創新程度較低的漸進性產品,搭配高度的組織創新氣候,會有較高的產品創新績效。
在產品創新績效的兩構面:產品創新效率及效果是有抵換關係的,因此,在研發專案之前,需先評估此專案最關鍵的目標是追求效率(準時上市、符合預算),或是效果(顧客滿意、符合品質、達到預期的利潤目標),應針對不同的目標,而研發不同創新類型的產品。
第壹章 緒論 …………………………………………………………1
第一節研究動機……………………………………………………………1
第二節研究目的……………………………………………………………3
第三節研究流程……………………………………………………………3
第貳章 文獻探討 ……………………………………………………5
第一節 個人創造力………………………………………………………..5
一、創造力的定義………………………………………………………………5
二、個人創造力特質與衡量方式………………………………………………7
第二節 組織創新氣候……………………………………………………..10
第三節 產品創新的類型………………………………………………….16
一、產品創新的定義……………………………………………………………16
二、產品創新的類型……………………………………………………………17
第四節 創新績效的衡量………………………………………………….21
第五節 個人創造力、組織創新氣候、創新類型與創新績效之關係…..23
第六節 個案研究…………………………………………………………..24
第三章 研究設計……………………………………………………..25
第一節 概念性架構………………………………………………………..25
第二節 研究假設…………………………………………………………..26
第三節 研究變數操作性定義與衡量……………………………………..28
一、個人創造力的定義與衡量……………………………………………..28
二、組織創新氣候的定義與衡量…………………………..………………29
三、創新類型的定義與衡量……………………………………………….30
四、創新績效的定義與衡量……………………………………………….30
五、本研究之變數整理……………………………………………………31
第四節 研究對象與問卷回收……………………………………………..32
一、研究對象…………………………………………………………….32
二、問卷回收…………………………………………………………….32
第五節 資料分析方法……………………………………………………..34
第六節 信度與效度………………………………………………………..36
一、信度分析…………………………………………………………….36
二、效度分析…………………………………………………………….38
第四章 研究結果分析………………………………………………..39
第一節 基本敘述統計……………………………………………………..40
第二節 個人創造力、組織創新氣候與產品創新績效之關係…………..42
一、創新績效衡量構面描述……………………………………………….42
二、個人創造力衡量變數描述…………………………………………….44
三、組織創新氣候衡量變數描述………………………………………….46
第三節 組織創新情境與產品創新績效之關係…………………………..48
第四節 產品創新類型與創新績效之關係………………………………..50
一、衡量變數描述………………………………………………………..50
二、創新類型之因素分析…………………………………………………50
三、創新類型之集群分析…………………………………………………50
四、不同創新類型在產業類別上的差異……………………………………51
五、不同創新類型之專案在產品創新績效上的差異………………………..52
第五節 不同創新類型與組織創新情境下之創新績效之比較…………..53
第五章 結論與建議…………………………………………………..54
第一節 研究結論…………………………………………………………..54
一、產品創新績效分群……………………………………………………54
二、個人創造力與產品創新績效之關係……………………………………54
三、組織創新氣候與產品創新績效之關係…………………………………55
四、組織創新情境與產品創新績效之關係…………………………………55
五、產品創新類型與產品創新績效之關係…………………………………56
六、創新情境與創新類型配適下之創新績效……………………………….57
第二節 管理上的含義……………………………………………………..59
一、個人創造力………………………………………………………….59
二、組織創新氣候………………………………………………………..59
三、創新類型…………………………………………………………….59
第三節 研究限制與後續研究之建議……………………………………..61
一、研究限制…………………………………………………………….61
二、後續研究之建議………………………………………………………61
第六章 參考文獻……………………………………………………..62
一、中文部份…………………………………………………………….62
二、英文部份…………………………………………………………….64
第七章 附錄…………………………………………………………..69
附錄一 研究問卷…………………………………………………………..69
附錄二 個案研究…………………………………………………………..73
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