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研究生:何書豪
研究生(外文):Shu-hao Ho
論文名稱:溫泉空間,體熱邊緣:論男同性戀於「公共」溫泉空間之個人化「私密」情/慾活動
論文名稱(外文):Spa Space, Steamy Stage:Individualization of Homosexual“Private” Sex/Erotic Acts in “Public” Hot Spring Space
指導教授:周慧玲周慧玲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Katherine Chou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:英美語文學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:男同性戀溫泉身體空間個人化
外文關鍵詞:homosexualityhot springbodyspaceindividualization
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本篇論文旨在探究個人化(individualization)運作於台灣地區男同性戀溫泉活動所產生的雙重效應,並依此突顯曖昧、晦密的男同性戀溫泉活動所隱涵足以質問「異性戀常態機制」管束(heteronormative regulation)的能動性。
在個人化過程中,男同性戀,如同其他個人,在國家與市場的管束之下,已培育成為自我關照(self-concerned)的現代公民,並且受到鼓勵,積極透過消費活動來滿足個人慾望。此等自我關照的慾望追求,將個人建構成順從、有用的主體(docile and useful subjects),以便符合「異性戀常態機制」最大利益。一九七九年台北市議會廢除北投侍應生營業執照的決議,昭示了「非常態性」(non-normative sexuality)的去除已是重新建構溫泉成為健康、自然、去性化(de-sexualized)的休閒模範/商品的基本原則。然而,去性化管理卻無法全然掌控溫泉空間中的男同性戀情/慾/社群活動(sex/erotic/communal acts)。在個人化的同一過程中,男同性戀一方面被塑造成為偃服於「異性戀常態」親密意識型態(ideology of intimacy)的順民,然而在另一方面,他們也被啟發,於溫泉空間中積極了解、追求、實現他們的需求。
由於男同性戀巧妙運用溫泉傳統及空間元素,諸如男女分池、裸裎共浴、渾沌池水、狹小空間、隱密角落以及幽黯深夜,同性戀情/慾/社群需求得以在曖昧的眼神流轉與晦密的身體碰觸下偷渡、實踐。在異性戀機制的監管下,男同性戀於溫泉空間習得並實行迴避規訓的非口語式(non-verbal)性邀約與性冒險。此外,在性追逐的過程中,男同性戀也發展出一套足以回應「異性戀常態機制」要求的親密意識型態的嶄新身體空間概念(neo-body-space concept)。男同性戀回應「異性戀常態機制」管束的策略也許看似低調、順從,然而在曖昧、晦密的謹慎活動中,具實質效應的能動性於焉產生,男同性戀也因此得以拓展其活動領域、跨越「公共」與「私密」疆界、創造/保存男同性戀溫泉文化,最終確認其在「異性戀常態機制」紛圍中的獨特性(distinct sexuality)。
本論文將以四種研究方法,分梳「異性戀常態機制」於溫泉空間對男同性戀所執行的權力運作,以及男同性戀在此權力管束下所回應的個人化情/慾實踐:一、進行個人深度訪談,呈現男同性戀實現身體與心理渴求的操作方式,以及面對「異性戀常態機制」監管的對應策略;二、現地觀察,以便了解空間與男同性戀活動之間的互動與衝突關係;三、透過相關報導與文獻資料,反映異性戀「常態」社會對溫泉空間中(同性戀)情/慾活動(或同性戀族群本身)的監管技術;四、藉由諸多權力論述(power discourses),剖析同性戀情/慾政治及其展演的個人化特質與權力的糾葛關係。
本論文同意男同性戀溫泉活動受到國家與市場機制的管束與掌控的說法,然而男同性戀在積極追求受打壓、限制的情/慾展演中所呈現的能動性與個人化特質─自主性、自省性、個人性,更是本論文戮力呈現的焦點。

In this thesis I aim to explore the double effects of individualization exerting on homosexuals at hot springs in Taiwan, and thereby to unveil the counter agency of the ambiguous and secret homosexual performance against the heteronormative regulation.
In the process of individualization, homosexuals, like other individuals, are cultivated to become self-concerned citizens, and are encouraged to fulfill their desires through consumption. Such a self-concerned pursuit is regulated by the state and the market in order to construct individuals to be docile and useful subjects for the heteronormative institutions’ benefits. The termination of sex workers’ official license at Peitou in 1979 designates that the eradication of “non-normative” sexuality out of hot spring industry has become the heteronormative institutions’ principle of reconstructing hot spring as a healthful, natural, and de-sexualized leisure model/commodity. Nevertheless, the implementation of de-sexualization fails to eliminate homosexual performance at hot springs. In the same process of individualization, homosexuals are indeed on the one hand cultivated as compliant subjects to conform to the heteronormative ideology of intimacy, whereas on the other hand, they are individualized, like other consumers, to know their own need, pursue their own need, and fulfill their own need actively at hot springs.
With the cover of hot spring customs and spatial elements, such as opposite sexes bathing separately, same-sex bathing naked together, opaque hot spring water, small pools, secluded corners and the darkness of the night, homosexuals fulfill their sex/erotic/communal longing through the prudent practice of ambiguous eye contact and secret body touch. In hot spring space, homosexuals learn and practice skills of non-verbal sexual adventure under the surveillance of heteronormative institutions, and develop a neo-body-space concept to counter the heteronormative ideology of intimacy. Homosexuals’ strategies of dealing with the heteronormative regulation may be rather low-toned and compliant, whereas in practicing ambiguous and secret homosexual acts, the counter agency is generated for them to expand homosexual territories, to cross the boundary of “public” and “private,” to create/preserve homosexual hot spring culture and thus to affirm their distinct sexuality in the heteronormative milieu.
The interacting and conflicting matrix of the powers of the state and the market, hot spring, homosexuals and their sex/erotic/communal acts will be explored in four ways. First, I conduct interview with homosexuals who have hot spring experience in order to bring into light the strategies taken by homosexuals in fulfilling their physical as well as mental needs and the tactics utilized by them to deal with the heteronormative surveillance. Secondly, I visit hot spring sites famous for homosexual congregation; I examine them as my case studies so as to closely observe how the location, the degree of openness and other spatial arrangement affect homosexual sex/erotic/communal acts, and how homosexual patrons deal with the heteronormative way of arranging a public locale. Thirdly, I take news reports and documents as texts of studying and investigating the technologies of surveillance and regulation employed by heteronormative institutions. Above all, I intend to employ the theories of power discourses to examine the homosexual performance in hot spring space so as to probe into the relationship between the power and the subject in the exertion of individualization.
This thesis assures the manipulation of the power of the state and that of the market in regulating homosexual acts in hot spring space, whereas it furthermore intends to recognize the homosexuals’ agency of questing restricted sex/erotic/communal longing with their individualized character─autonomy, self-reflexivity and individuality.

Table of Contents

Chapter One Introduction: Utilizing Hot Spring as Homosexual Arena1
1.1 Homosexual performance vs. sex-negative policy of hot spring1
1.2 Activating homosexual performance: hot spring customs and individualization5
1.3 Research concerns and methods9
Chapter Two The Individualization of Homosexual Performance at Hot Springs14
2.1 Marketing hot spring as a leisure product of health and nature14
2.2 Consuming pluralistic pleasures of hot spring15
2.2.1 Therapeutic effects of body, mind and soul15
2.2.2 Homosexual sex/erotic/communal need17
2.2.2.1 Performing homosexual sex/erotic acts19
2.2 2.1.1 Eye contact20
2.2 2.1.2 Body touch23
2.2 2.1.2.1 In the pool24
2.2 2.1.2.2 At the poolside27
2.2 2.1.2.3 In the darkness of the night29
2.2.2.2 Fulfilling the communal longing34
2.3 Individualizing homosexual performance38
2.3.1 Site-selecting39
2.3.2 Risk-taking40
2.3.3 Neo-body attitude42
Chapter Three The Regulation of Homosexuality at Hot Springs45
3.1 Performing homosexual acts with the anxiety of heteronormative surveillance45
3.2 Technologies of governmentality: repression and individualization46
3.2.1 Regulating sexuality with surveillance51
3.2.1.1 Hot spring consumers and owners’ supervision51
3.2.1.2 Police raids56
3.2.2 The alliance of the state and the market58
3.2.3 Regulating sexuality through individualization60
3.3 The awareness of the sexual citizenship63
Chapter Four Individualizing Homosexual Subjects, Homosexualizing Hot Springs65
4.1 Expanding homosexual territories with the employment of ambiguity and secrecy67
4.1.1 Critiques of sex in the city67
4.1.2 Legitimizing the frequentation of hot springs69
4.1.3 Heteronormative repression and homosexuals’ predilection71
4.1.4 Ambiguous Area, Secret Sex72
4.1.5 The effects of disseminating homosexual knowledge74
4.2 Crossing the boundary of “public” and “private”77
4.2.1 Querying the manipulation of the ideology of intimacy77
4.2.2 Rethinking sex in “public” space79
Bibliography83
Appendix I87
Appendix II88


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