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研究生:黃立勳
研究生(外文):Li-Hsin Huang
論文名稱:熱門影片廣播法之影片區段復原機制
論文名稱(外文):Segment Loss Recovery on Hot-Video Broadcasting
指導教授:曾黎明曾黎明引用關係
指導教授(外文):Li-Ming Tseng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:資訊工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:52
中文關鍵詞:快速下載網路頻寬排程群播隨選視訊容錯復原分段式廣播法
外文關鍵詞:Fault-Tolerant RecoveryVideo on Demand(VoD)MulticastingNetwork Bandwidth SchedulingFast DownloadingSegment Based Broadcasting
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以一個VoD(隨選視訊系統、Video on Demand)系統而言,熱門影片被重覆選擇的機會較其它影片大,若觀看相同影片的頻寬可以共享,就可降低頻寬需求,所以之前的研究提出了各式的廣播演算法,提供在固定頻寬下,讓無限多位使用者共享影片資料,並保證一定等待時間。
在這些方法中,有部份演算法是將影片以「區段」(segment)分割,再以群播(multicast)方式傳送。而當這分割因某些狀況遺失可能會造成播放不順暢。本文提出多種方式來改善此問題。主要改善方法稱為「二次機會」(second chance),就是讓使用者預先多收一次區段減低遺失機率。而為了降低多次重送造成二倍頻寬花費,我們根據之前演算法,觀察出影片區段在播放時有明顯重覆出現的現象,於是針對每個演算法加以改進,保證至少有二次接收的機會。而之前無針對重送補救的演算法,也提出一個專門針對二次重送的方法,藉由相同的觀念可以發展為重送多次影片區段的演算法。最後再利用出現時間的間隔關係進一步降低重送的頻寬。


In VoD (video on demand) system, “Hot video” will always be selected. If the bandwidth can be shared to other people watch the same media. The bandwidth requirement can be decreased. The researches before propose many multi channels fast media broadcasting algorithms. Those algorithms can use limited bandwidth for unlimited people and promise constant longest waiting time.
Movies separate as “segments” in some of those algorithms. The losing long playback time of segments will heavy impact the movie quality. This paper finds many solutions to solve this problem. The primary conception is “second chance”, which makes user will recovery from losing segments once. To decrease the demand of twice bandwidth cost, we first notice segments arriving periodically in currently algorithms. Than we try to make each algorithm can send segments at least twice per period. Besides, we also propose one original algorithm to encounter the un-efficiently bandwidth usage of improving algorithms. Finally, we improve our algorithm only re-sends segments beyond the tolerant time to further decreasing bandwidth.


目錄
摘要i
Abstractii
圖片和表格列表v
第1章 動機1
第2章 相關研究3
第1節 容錯機制之討論3
第1項 底層協定4
第2項 系統架構6
第2節 熱門影片播放法9
第3節 封包遺失重送頻寬分析18
第3章 容錯廣播演算法 (Hot-video Broadcasting with Fault Recovery)20
第1節 背景20
第2節 演算法25
第3節 改進31
第4章 Second Chance Algorithm分析和模擬結果33
第1節 影片分割數分析33
第2節 等待時間分析35
第3節 所需buffer分析36
第4節 Disk傳輸速度分析36
第5節 補救比例37
第5章 結論與未來計畫38
參考文獻39
Appendix A:Heuristic Solutions41


參考文獻[1]Anirban Mahanti, Dave Sundaram-Stukel (University of Wisconsin), Derek Eager (University of Saskatchewan) and Mary Vernon, “Scalable On-Demand Media Streaming with Packet Loss Recovery”, ACM SIGCOMM 2001, pp. 97-108[2]Anker, T., Dolev, D. and Keidar, I., “Fault tolerant video on demand services”, Distributed Computing Systems, 1999. Proceedings., 19th IEEE International Conference on , 1999, pp. 244 –252[3]Berson. S, Cheng-Fu Chou, Golubchik, L., Muntz, R.R., “Design of fault-tolerant large-scale VOD servers: With emphasis on high-performance and low-cost Parallel and Distributed Systems”, IEEE Transactions on , Vol. 12 Issue: 4 , Apr 2001, pp. 363 -386[4]C. Perklins, O. hodson and V. Hardman, “A Survey of Packet Loss Recovery Techniques for Streaming Audio”, IEEE Network Magazine, Sept./Oct. 1998, pp. 40-47.[5]Chi-He Chang, Jang-Ping Sheu and Yu-Chee Tseng, “A Recursive Frequency-Splitting Scheme for Broadcasting Hot Videos in VOD Service”, M. S. Thesis, Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan, R.O.C., Jun 2000.[6]Darrell D. E. and Steven W. Carter, “Stream tapping:a system for improving efficiency on a video-on-demand server”, Technical Report UCSC-CRL-97-11,University of California,Santa Cruz,April 1997[7]Eager, D., Vernon, M. and Zahorjan, J., “Minimizing bandwidth requirements for on-demand data delivery”, Knowledge and Data Engineering, IEEE Transactions on , Volume: 13 Issue: 5 , Sept.-Oct. 2001 , pp. 742 –757[8]Golubchik, L., Lie, P.W.K., Lui, J.C.S., “Threshold-based dynamic replication in large-scale video-on-demand systems”, Research Issues In Data Engineering, 1998. 'Continuous-Media Databases and Applications'. Proceedings., Eighth International Workshop on , 1998 , pp. 52 –59[9]Guo, K., Ramesh, and S., Rhee, I., “Multicast with cache (Mcache): an adaptive zero-delay video-on-demand service”, Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS FOR VIDEO TECHNOLOGY, Volume: 11 Issue: 3, March 2001, pp. 440 –456[10]Han-Lih Wang, and Jang-Ping Sheu, ”A Fast Broadcasting Scheme for Hot Videos in Video-on-Demand Service”, Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Central University, Taiwan, R.O.C, July 13, 2001[11]Hu, A., “Video-on-demand broadcasting protocols: a comprehensive study”, INFOCOM 2001. Proceedings. IEEE, Volume: 1, 2001, pp. 508 -517[12]Ing-Jye Shyu , and Shiuh-Pyng Shieh, “Balancing workload and recovery load on distributed fault-tolerant VOD systems”, IEEE Communications Letters , Vol 2 Issue: 10 , Oct. 1998 pp. 288 –290[13]J-F. Paris, “A simple low bandwidth broadcasting protocol for video on demand”, Proc. 7th Int. Conf. On Computer Communications and Networks, pp. 690-697, Oct 1999.[14]J.-F. Paris, S.-W. Carter, and D.-D.E. Long., “A hybrid broadcasting protocol for video on demand”, In MMCN, pp. 317–326, 1999[15]J. Rosenberg, “Reliability enhancement to NeVoT ”, Dec. 1996[16]L.M. Tseng and L.S. Juhn, “Fast data broadcasting and receiving scheme for popular video services”, IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 100-105, Mar 1998.[17]L.M. Tseng and L.S. Juhn, “Harmonic broadcasting for video-on-demand service”, IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 268-271, Sep 1997.[18]L.M. Tseng and L.S. Juhn, “Staircase data broadcasting and receiving scheme for hot video service”, IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 1110-1117, Nov 1997.[19]Li-Ming Tseng, Li-Shen Juhn and Zeng-Yuan Yang, “On optimal Broadcasting Scheme for Popular Video System”, IEEE Transaction on Broadcasting, Vol. 45, No. 3, Sept. 1999.[20]Lee, J.Y.B., “Supporting server-level fault tolerance in concurrent-push-based parallel video servers”, Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on , Volume: 11 Issue: 1 , Jan. 2001 Page(s): 25 –39[21]J.-F. Paris, “A simple low-bandwidth broadcasting protocol”, In ICCCN, pp. 118–123, 1999[22]James F. Kurose, and Keith W. Ross, “Computer Networking”, Addison-Wesley Longman, 2000[23]McKenney, P. and Shacham, N., “Packet recovery in high-speed networks using coding and buffer management”, INFOCOM 1990[24]RFC 2198, “RTP Payload for Redundant Audio Data”, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2198.txt, September 1997[25]Z-Y. Yang, “The Telepresentation System Over Internet with Latecomers Support”, PhD. Thesis, National Central University, 2000

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