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研究生:鄭欽仁
研究生(外文):Chin-Jen Chang
論文名稱:下水污泥灰發泡混凝土之輕質化與隔熱特性研究
論文名稱(外文):Investigating the lightweight characterization and heat-insulating efficiency of foaming concrete made of sewage sludge ash
指導教授:王鯤生
指導教授(外文):Kuen-Sheng Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:環境工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:180
中文關鍵詞:下水污泥灰金屬發泡劑發泡混凝土熱傳導率
外文關鍵詞:sewage sludge ashmetallic foaming agentlightweight concreteheat transfer
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:23
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  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
摘要
台灣地區因衛生下水道平均普及率僅6.5%,政府乃積極提出「污水下水道發展方案」,預計2003年將日產180,000m3污泥,如此龐大污泥的處理與處置,將形成環保上棘手且迫切的問題。本研究基於廢棄物資源化之目的,以八里初級污水處理廠與台北市民生二級污水處理廠之下水污泥焚化灰渣為主體材料,添加水泥及金屬發泡劑產生發泡反應,以拌製污泥灰發泡混凝土。針對材料之物理性質及化學組成,探討污泥灰料源對於發泡混凝土之產製配比、輕質化與熱傳等工程性能,以及微觀組織之影響;並以鋁粉與廢五金粉做為金屬發泡劑,比較二者對發泡特性之影響。最後,綜合評估污泥灰發泡混凝土之反應機制、輕質化與隔熱性能受配比變數之影響程度與關聯性,並提出使用策略與建議。
由研究結果顯示,就高分子系污泥而言,初級廠污泥之灰份高於二級廠污泥,而其含水率則呈相反,故初級廠污泥的灰渣製備較具經濟性;而初級廠及二級廠之污泥灰比表面積分別為4,657 m2/kg及10,193 m2/kg,污泥灰細度對漿體之工作性產生顯著影響;就污泥灰之化學組成而言,初級廠污泥灰之SiO2含量高於二級廠約19.82%,而P2O5含量前者低於後者約11.78%,其餘化學成分相近;初級廠污泥灰之卜作嵐活性高於二級廠污泥灰;污泥灰發泡混凝土之體比重低於1.2以下,符合輕質化之要求;而污泥灰發泡混凝土藉金屬發泡劑之發泡產氫反應,形成以大於1μm為主之多孔結構體,初級廠與二級廠之孔隙率分別為51.28 ~71.17%及53.62 ~72.54%,高孔隙率造成低熱傳導率,其熱傳導率分別為0.0880 ~0.2507 W/m-oK及0.0763 ~0.1510 W/m-oK。因此,就輕質化與隔熱性能而言,初級廠污泥灰劣於二級廠;但就經濟性而言,初級廠污泥灰優於二級廠。
Abstract
As the current percentage of the national population served by a sewer system in Taiwan is as low as 6.5%, a "National Development Sewer System Plan" has been launched, aimed at pushing forward sewer system development on the island. Pursuant to this development plan, it is estimated that by the years 2003 and 2009, the national average served by sewer systems should reach 15% and 33%, respectively, generating an estimated 180,000 m3/day and 400,000 m3/day of sewage sludge to be disposed of, which is expected to have significant impact on the environment. From the viewpoint of substantial waste management, zero-discharge for MSW incinerators, and the add value of the recovery of waste for green products, the resource and recovery of sewage sludge ash, for producing lightweight foaming concrete,should be a feasible and novel alternative.
This study investigates the feasibility of producing foaming concrete as an insulator, using sewage sludge ash as a main component, and evaluates its heat-insulating efficiency. The work focuses on the characterization of the sewage sludge ash, the mix design, the bloating mechanism, and the heat-transfer properties of the sludge-ash-based insulator. Sewage sludge cakes were collected from the Bali and Minsheng sewage treatment plants (STPs) respectively, representing a typical primary and a secondary STP. The sludge cake was first incinerated at 900℃ to produce ash. Aluminum powder was used as a foaming agent, combined with pulverized scrap ( more than 90% Aluminum) small amount of OPC was used as a binder.
The characterization of the main components of the sludge ash indicate that, for sludge cakes with polymers, the ash content of the primary sludge ash(PSA) was higher than that of the secondary sludge ash(SSA), whereas the relationship was reversed for the water content. The specific surface areas of the PSA and SSA were 4,657 m2/kg and 10,193 m2/kg respectively, showing the greater fineness of the effect of sludge ash on the workability of the pastes. In general, the PSA has higher SiO2 content but lower P2O5 content than the SSA, whereas the other components were about equal to each other. Furthermore, the PSA had higher pozzolanic activity than did the SSA. These results suggest the greater economic feasibility of recycling PSA rather than SSA.
Various mix designs were tested showing that the sludge-ash-based foaming concrete had a specific gravity of less than 1.2, meeting the ASTM for lightweight concrete(LC). The foaming mechanism was mainly due to hydrogen gas being by the reaction of aluminum with hydroxyl radicals, generated by the hydration of the cement. The cellular structure was solely composed of micro pores about 1μm in diameter.
LC samples prepared according to the mix design adopted in this study showed a porosity distribution ranging from 51% to 71% for PSA-based LC, and 54% to 63% for SSA-based LC. The higher porosity of the latter resulted in a lower heat transfer(0.0880-0.2507 W/m-oK) compared to that of the former(0.0763-0.1510 W/m-oK). Therefore it is suggested that the SSA-based LC should outperform PSA-based LC in heat-insulating efficiency.
It can be concluded, from the results of this study, that PSA is more economically feasible than SSA, whereas the SSA based LC showed better heat-insulating performance than did PSA- based LC.
目錄
第一章 前言1
1-1 研究緣起1
1-2 研究內容3
第二章 文獻回顧5
2-1 下水污泥之處理與處置5
2-1-1 下水污泥之產量推估6
2-1-2 下水污泥之種類與特性7
2-1-3 下水污泥之處理與處置方法13
2-2 下水污泥資源化之潛力與方法17
2-2-1 污泥資源化之潛力17
2-2-2 下水污泥資源化方式18
2-2-3 下水污泥灰之組成與特性23
2-2-4 下水污泥灰之資源化方式25
2-3 污泥灰發泡混凝土之反應行為39
2-3-1 水化作用39
2-3-2 卜作嵐特性45
2-3-3 發泡反應49
2-4 輕質混凝土之膨化機制與工程特性51
2-4-1 輕質混凝土之發展與應用51
2-4-2 輕質混凝土之膨化反應機制57
2-4-3 輕質混凝土之工程性質與微觀結構58
2-5 隔熱混凝土之熱傳機制與熱傳性質64
2-5-1 熱對流與熱輻射64
2-5-2 熱傳導之理論與機制66
2-5-3 熱傳導之量測方法69
2-5-4 隔熱材料之特性與選用72
2-5-5 隔熱材料之熱傳影響因子76
第三章 實驗材料與方法79
3-1 實驗流程79
3-2 實驗材料與設備81
3-2-1 污泥來源81
3-2-2 污泥灰製備84
3-2-3 其他摻料84
3-2-4 實驗設備85
3-3 實驗配置90
3-3-1 污泥灰發泡混凝土之配比與試體編號90
3-3-2 發泡產氣收集與分析92
3-3-3 熱傳導試驗93
3-4 實驗操作與分析方法93
3-4-1 實驗操作93
3-4-2 分析方法94
第四章 結果與討論102
4-1組成材料之基本特性102
4-1-1 下水污泥之基本特性102
4-1-2 下水污泥灰之物理特性分析104
4-1-3 下水污泥灰之重金屬總量與溶出特性分析107
4-1-4 下水污泥灰之化學組成與物種型態108
4-1-5 水泥與金屬發泡劑之基本性質分析112
4-2 污泥灰發泡混凝土之發泡特性與反應行為114
4-2-1 污泥灰成份與發泡特性114
4-2-2 發泡反應與產氣分析118
4-2-3 發泡均勻性分析121
4-2-4 孔隙結構分析124
4-3 污泥灰發泡混凝土之工程特性與微觀結構131
4-3-1 吸水率132
4-3-2 密度與體比重137
4-3-3 抗壓強度143
4-3-4 晶相物種與微觀結構149
4-4 污泥灰發泡混凝土之熱傳特性155
4-4-1 污泥灰成份與熱傳導特性155
4-4-2 材料配比與熱傳導特性156
4-4-3 工程性質與熱傳導特性161
4-4-4 孔隙結構與熱傳導特性163
第五章 結論與建議165
5-1 結論165
5-2 建議169
參考文獻171
附錄177
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