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研究生:謝瑞全
研究生(外文):Shui-Chuan Hsieh
論文名稱:不同表面特性黏土催化水中有機物之氯化反應研究
論文名稱(外文):Clays catalyzed the reactions between the organic compounds in water and disinfectants (chlorine)
指導教授:李俊福李俊福引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jiunn-Fwu Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:環境工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:122
中文關鍵詞:消毒副產物氯化反應表面催化不同表面特性黏土
外文關鍵詞:catalysisdisinfection by-products (DBPs)chlorinationclayorganic compound
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水中常見的溶解性有機質,包括腐植酸與黃酸,一直是研究水中消毒副產物形成潛能的重點;自然界水中除了溶解性有機物外,另一影響DBPs形成的重要因子為濁度物質。構成原水中的濁度物質裡,黏土是主要的組成成份,其表面具有催化能力,可促進非生物性反應之進行。
本研究主要藉由含不同組成、數目、位置之OH與COOH官能基的有機物作為前驅物,以含不同交換性陽離子之黏土進行一系列的氯催化反應研究,釐清溶解性有機物與黏土於氯化反應上的反應機制與主要影響因子。
研究結果顯示:反應物本身的性質是影響催化反應的主因,催化劑本身的性質亦是造成生成揮發性DBPs產量不同的因素之一;反應物性質中以含OH官能基有機物有較大的DBPs生成潛能,催化劑則以錳-蒙特石的催化效果最為顯著。不同催化介質所參與的氯化反應,其生成的物種會有所不同,能力亦互異;於含過渡金屬黏土之系統中,以錳-蒙特石催化能力最強;在含鐵陽離子催化劑中,則以鐵-蒙特石催化效果最好。過渡金屬陽離子黏土催化有機物氯化反應後,其生成物種以氯仿最明顯;不同官能基有機物有不同的物種分布,顯示有機物本身的性質將左右催化反應。
To study disinfection by-products formation potential (DBPFP) in water purification system, dissolving organic compounds (DOCs) including humic acid and fulvic acid have recently gained added importance because of the need to determine DOCs reactivity with disinfecting agents. In addition to DOCs, turbility matter is the other important factor to affect the DBPs formation.
In this study, the influences of surface characteristics of clays on organic compounds chlorination in drinking water purification processes were investigated. The characteristics of organic compound and clay affect the amount and species of DBPs on chlorination. Regardless of with and without catalyzer, organic compounds with OH functional group formed a larger number of DBPs than that with COOH functional group. On the other hand, these organic compounds inherent properties played an important role in catalytic reaction on chlorination. Transition —metal clays were obtained from exchanging the original cations of Ca2+-montmorillonites by Ti4+ , Fe3+ , Mn2+ , and Cu2+ cations. The obtained data demonstrated the wide diversities of metal-clay complexes for the catalysis of DBPs. The species and amount of DBPs in metal-clay are much more than the nonmetal-clay on chlorination in water, especially for the Mn2+-montmorillonites. The amount of transition-metal (Fe3+) in catalyzer was also measured. The results showed that the content of transition-metal was not a significant factor to catalyze chlorination reaction. The reactivity of clay and the physics-chemical properties of organic compounds are dominated catalytic reaction on chlorination in water.
目 錄
目 次 頁次
目 錄…………………………………………………………………..I
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………..IV
表目錄…………………………………………………………………..Ⅶ
第一章 前言…………………………………………………………..1
1-1 研究緣起…………………………………………………….1
1-2 研究目的與內容…………………………………………….2
第二章 文獻回顧……………………………………………………..3
2-1 有機物之氯化反應………………………………………….3
2-1-1水體中有機物的來源與組成………………………...3
2-1-2 天然有機物---腐植質………………………………..4
2-1-3 氯化反應…………………………………………….10
2-1-4氯與水中有機污染物之反應………………………...12
2-2 消毒副產物………………………………………………….15
2-3 水中揮發性有機物分析…………………………………….17
2-3-1 揮發性有機物(VOCs)….…………………………...17
2-3-2水中揮發性有機物(VOCs)的分析方法……………18
2-4 水中非揮發性有機物---鹵化乙酸分析………………..….20
2-5 黏土與有機物之作用……………………………………….22
2-5-1表面反應……………………………………………..22
2-5-2黏土表面化學反應……………………….…………..23
2-5-3黏土表面各種狀態…………………………………...23
2-5-4影響黏土表面反應的因子………………...…………24
2-5-5黏土礦物與有機物間之作用…………………..…...26
2-5-5-1氧化反應和電荷轉移反應………………………27
目 次 頁次
2-5-5-2氧化聚合反應…………………………………..27
2-5-5-3重排反應………………………………….…...28
2-5-5-4水解反應……………………………………...29
2-5-5-5其 它……………………………………………30
第三章 實驗設備、材料與方法………………..……………………..31
3-1 實驗架構及內容………………….…………………………31
3-2 實驗設備……………………………….……………………33
3-2-1前處理使用設備……………………………………...33
3-2-2分析水中揮發性有機物之設備……………………...35
3-3-3分析水中非揮發性有機物---鹵化乙酸之設備……...37
3-4 實驗材料………………………………….…………………39
3-4-1土樣…………………………………………………...39
3-4-2有機物………………………………………………...41
3-5 含過渡金屬陽離子黏土製備與性質分析…………………42
3-5-1含過渡金屬陽離子黏土備製.......................................42
3-5-2不同表面特性黏土交換性陽離子含量.......................47
3-5-3黏土上過渡金屬陽離子置換率……………………...51
3-5-4不同表面特性黏土表面積、孔隙值及孔隙大小測定51
3-6 水中揮發性有機物分析…………………………………….53
3-7 水中非揮發性有機物---鹵化乙酸分析……………………60
3-8 水中餘氯測定………………………………………….…...60
第四章 結果與討論…………………………………………………..64
4-1 不同官能基有機物消毒副產物之生成……………………64
4-1-1含不同官能基組成有機物………….………………..64
4-1-2含不同位置官能基有機物………….……………..…69

目 次 頁次
4-2 含不同官能基有機物之消毒副產物生成物種………….…71
4-3 不同表面特性黏土之消毒副產物生成總量……………….78
4-3-1黏土催化反應……………………………………....78
4-3-2含過渡金屬黏土催化有機物之DBPs生成總量……80
4-3-3不同來源含鐵離子土壤之氯化副產物生成量……...85
4-4 不同表面特性黏土之消毒副產物生成物種……………….87
4-4-1含過渡金屬陽離子黏土之揮發性DBPs物種………87
4-4-2不同來源鐵離子催化之氯化副產物物種…………...98
4-4-3氯仿的生成機制103
4-5 非揮發性有機物(鹵化乙酸)分析108
第五章 結論與建議…………………………………………………110
參考文獻………………………………………………………………..112
附錄A…………………………………………………………………...A-1
附錄B…………………………………………………………………...B-1
圖 目 錄
目 次 頁次
圖 2-1 有機質之分離流程圖………………………………………...8
圖 2-2 Stevenson所推估的腐質酸結構式……………..……………8
圖 2-3 腐植酸的立體結構模型示意圖……………………………...9
圖 2-4 混凝加入30mg/L alum前後氯化生成總THMs、HAAs情形……………………………………………………………..16
圖 3-1 研究流程圖…………………………………………………...32
圖 3-2 串聯質譜儀內的電壓參數圖………………………………...40
圖 3-3 蒙特石結構示意圖…………………………...………………41
圖 3-4 含過渡金屬黏土樣品備製圖………………………...………46
圖 3-5 土壤王水消化法流程圖……………………...………………49
圖 3-6 土壤酸性消化法流程圖……………………...………………50
圖 3-7 土壤氫氟酸消化法流程圖…………………...………………50
圖 3-8 GC/MS AutoTune 之結果……………………………………59
圖 4-1 不同官能基有機物生成DBPs總量圖………………….…..66
圖 4-2 含OH官能基有機物生成總量比較圖……………………..68
圖 4-3 含不同數量OH官能基生成DBPs總量比較圖……….…...71
圖 4-4 鄰苯二酚生成DBPs之物種比例圖………………………...73
圖 4-5 間苯二酚生成DBPs之物種比例圖………………………...73
圖 4-6 對苯二酚生成DBPs之物種比例圖………………….……….74
圖 4-7 苯甲酸生成DBPs之物種比例圖…………………..………...74
圖 4-8 鄰苯二甲酸生成DBPs之物種比例圖………………………..75
圖 4-9 間苯二甲酸生成DBPs之物種比例圖…………………….….75
圖 4-10 對苯二甲酸生成DBPs之物種比例圖………………………76
圖 4-11 1,2-十二烷基二醇生成DBPs之物種比例圖…………...….76
圖 4-12 正己醇生成DBPs之物種比例圖……………………………77
圖 4-13 1,8,9-Trihydroxyanthracene生成DBPs之物種比例圖.77
圖 4-14 過渡金屬陽離子催化含OH官能基有機物之DBPs生成總量……………………………………………………………..81
圖 4-15 過渡金屬陽離子催化含OH大分子有機物之DBPs生成總量.83
圖 4-16 過渡金屬陽離子催化COOH官能基有機物之DBPs生成總量……………………………………………………………..84
圖 4-17 含鐵陽離子黏土催化之DBPs生成總量85
圖 4-18 過渡金屬陽離子催化OH官能基有機物之DBPs生成物種..88
圖 4-19 過渡金屬陽離子催化COOH官能基有機物DBPs生成物種……………………………………………………………..89
圖 4-20 過渡金屬陽離子催化含OH大分子官能基有機物之DBPs生 成物種………………………………………………………89
圖 4-21 鈦-蒙特石催化間苯二酚氯化反應產物生成比例圖……….91
圖 4-22 鐵-蒙特石催化間苯二酚氯化反應產物生成比例圖……….92
圖 4-23 錳-蒙特石催化間苯二酚氯化反應產物生成比例圖……….92
圖 4-24 銅-蒙特石催化間苯二酚氯化反應產物生成比例圖……….93
圖 4-25 鈦-蒙特石催化鄰苯二甲酸氯化反應產物生成比例圖….…93
圖 4-26 鐵-蒙特石催化鄰苯二甲酸氯化反應產物生成比例圖….…94
圖 4-27 錳-蒙特石催化鄰苯二甲酸氯化反應產物生成比例圖….…94
圖 4-28 銅-蒙特石催化鄰苯二甲酸氯化反應產物生成比例圖….…95
圖 4-29 鈦-蒙特石催化1,8,9-Trihydroxyanthracene氯化反應產物生成比例圖………………………………………………95
圖 4-30 鐵-蒙特石催化1,8,9-Trihydroxyanthracene氯化反應產物生成比例圖………………………………………………96
圖 4-31 錳-蒙特石催化1,8,9-Trihydroxyanthracene氯化反應產物生成比例圖………………………………………………96
圖 4-32 銅-蒙特石催化1,8,9-Trihydroxyanthracene氯化反應產物生成比例圖………………………………………………97
圖 4-33 含鐵陽離子黏土催化含OH大分子官能基有機物之DBPs生成物種………………………………………………………99
圖 4-34 林口土催化鄰苯二酚氯化反應產物生成比例圖…………99
圖 4-35 氧化鐵催化鄰苯二酚氯化反應產物生成比例圖…………100
圖 4-36 林口土催化鄰苯二甲酸氯化反應產物生成比例圖………100
圖 4-37 氧化鐵催化鄰苯二酚氯化反應產物生成比例圖…………101
圖 4-38 林口土催化1,8,9-Trihydroxyanthracene氯化反應產物生成比例圖…………………………………………………101
圖 4-39 氧化鐵催化1,8,9-Trihydroxyanthracene氯化反應產物生成比例圖…………………………………………………102
圖 4-40 甲苯之氯化反應……………………………………………103
圖 4-41 丙酮加氯產生三鹵甲烷反應機構圖………………………104
圖 4-42 過渡金屬陽離子黏土催化高分子凝聚劑氯化反應圖……105
圖 4-43 間苯二酚加氯產生三鹵甲烷反應機構……………………106
圖 4-44 過渡金屬陽離子黏土催化間苯二酚氯化反應圖…………107
表 目 錄
目 次 頁次
表 2-1 水體天然有機物的組成……………………………………...4
表 2-2 有機物與消毒副產物(DBPs)關係…………………………...5
表 2-3 利用13C NMR方法分析腐質酸與黃酸的官能基…..……….9
表 2-4 消毒副產物的形態與種類…………………………………...15
表 3-1 purge & trap與GC/MS分析操作條件………………………37
表 3-2 串聯式質譜儀分析條件與參數……………………………...39
表 3-3 小分子有機物物理化學性質………………………………...43
表 3-3 (續)小分子有機物物理化學性質……………………………44
表 3-4 黏土表面之過渡金屬陽離子置換率………………………...51
表 3-5 不同表面特性黏土之表面積及孔隙性質…………………...52
表 3-6 五十四種標準品的物化特性………………………………...55
表 3-7 五十四種標準品的定性定量離子…………………………...56
表 3-8 質量之相對感應強度可接受質……………………………...58
表 3-9 鹵化乙酸的物化特性………………………………………...61
表 4-1 鄰苯二酚與對苯二酚氯化反應前後濃度變化……………...81
表 4-2 含鐵金屬陽離子土樣之含鐵重量百分比…………………...86
表 4-3 利用串連式質譜儀量測HAAs之檢量線方程式與樣品測試值……………………………………………………………..109
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