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研究生:林姵吟
研究生(外文):Pei-Yin Lin
論文名稱:台北都會區黃沙時期氣膠特性
論文名稱(外文):Characterization of aerosol in metropolitan Taipei during yellow-sand periods
指導教授:李崇德李崇德引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chung-Te Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:環境工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:150
中文關鍵詞:都會區氣膠特性即時監測值黃沙時期逆溯氣流軌跡加強因子法
外文關鍵詞:Yellow sandenhancement factorbackward air trajectorycontinuous monitoringurban aerosol
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黃沙現象是東亞地區春季相當活躍的現象,每年春季在中國西北沙漠地區產生的沙塵暴,經由天氣系統的傳送而影響到台灣。台灣地區在受到大陸沙塵的影響期間,大氣中的微粒濃度值明顯增加,不僅影響台灣的空氣品質,造成能見度衰竭,並影響人類的健康。為了瞭解大陸沙塵對於都會區氣膠特性的影響,本研究選擇經常會受到大陸沙塵影響的三月∼五月間,在台北都會區進行PM10及PM2.5氣膠的監測。除利用環保署超級測站多種自動監測儀器量測氣膠的物化特性外,並配合人工採樣進行氣膠採樣及分析,以期獲得北部地區在黃沙時期較完整的PM10及PM2.5氣膠的物化特性。
今年襲台的沙塵暴共有八波,從PM10即時監測質量濃度值來看,影響最為嚴重的黃沙事件為第二波(3月6日∼9日)及第三波(3月18日∼20日),PM10最大小時濃度值可高達160μg/m3以上,而這八波黃沙事件時期,PM2.5及PM10氣膠的平均濃度為28.7及66.3μg/m3,比起平常日PM2.5的37.4及PM10的濃度值55.4μg/m3濃度值,發現PM10的濃度值有增加,並且是粗粒徑氣膠(PM10-2.5)部分增加最多。將PM10-2.5的逐時濃度變化配合風向風速變化看來,發現當PM10-2.5濃度大於PM2.5濃度時,此時的風向明顯從原來的東北風轉成北風,且風速漸漸上升從平常日約為0.4m/sec上升最大可達1.4m/sec,所以利用PM10-2.5的逐時濃度與風向風速的配合可以推斷當地受到大陸沙塵影響的起迄時間。而從PM2.5氣膠的主要化學成份來看,硫酸鹽、硝酸鹽、碳成份濃度在黃沙時期的平均值低於平常日的濃度,顯示由沙塵暴帶來的PM2.5氣膠污染屬於少量,都會區細粒徑氣膠的貢獻還是以當地產生居多。而PM10氣膠體積濃度粒徑分佈在非黃沙時期以細粒徑氣膠居多,在黃沙時期轉變成以粗粒徑氣膠居多。
在黃沙時期進行人工的採樣,採樣分析結果在PM10及PM2.5質量濃度及碳成份的變化趨勢均與自動即時監測結果一致,顯示即時監測值的可性度。將人工採樣樣本依據逆溯氣流軌跡線可分成六類,屬於黃沙時期的逆溯氣流軌跡,其樣本在質量濃度的表現上也是以PM10-2.5居多,而非黃沙時期的逆溯氣流軌跡樣本中,以PM2.5居多,但隨著氣流經過不同的區域,其粗細粒徑氣膠化學性質也會有所不同。以碳成份來看,無論樣本是屬於黃沙時期與非黃沙時期的逆溯氣流軌跡,其濃度值變化不大。在黃沙時期,明顯從大陸沙塵源區直接傳輸過來的氣流,粗粒徑氣膠的元素組成以Si、Ca、Al、Fe居多,並且利用加強因子法發現這些元素由塵土所貢獻。同樣的在黃沙時期的逆溯氣流軌跡中,Ca2+、Mg2+所佔的比例明顯增高。利用海水加強因子法配合逆溯氣流軌跡顯示,Cl-、Mg2+等離子來自海水飛沫,而Ca2+、SO42-、K+來自非海水飛沫。
Yellow sand (YS) phenomenon is very active in springtime of East Asia. For the right atmospheric condition, the dust storm from northwestern region of China, the desert area, will transport dusts to Taiwan. During the period effected by the dust storm, the aerosol concentration in Taiwan increases significantly. Not only the air quality, but also the human health is threatened. Therefore, it is important to understand the effects of YS to our atmosphere. In this study, the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in metropolitan Taipei from March to May in 2002 were monitored. In addition to automatic instruments installed in EPA aerosol supersite, manual sampling equipments are employed to get more detailed information of both chemical and physical characteristics of aerosols.
This year, the YS invaded Taiwan eight times. From the real-time monitoring concentrations of PM10, the worst two batches were the second (March 6-9) and the third (March 18- 20) ones. The maximum hourly PM10 concentration was higher than 160 mg/m3. Among the eight batches of YS, the average of PM2.5 and PM10 was 28.7 and 66.3 mg/m3, respectively. In contrast to 37.4 and 55.4 mg/m3, the average of PM2.5 and PM10 during non-yellow-sand (NYS) periods, the concentration of the coarse particles (PM10-2.5) increased a great amount during the YS periods. It is found that on the arrival of a YS batch, the wind direction shifted from northeast to from north and the wind speed was lifted. Meanwhile, the PM10-2.5 level was increased during this time period, which is different from the level in the NYS periods. This demonstrates that one may use the change of WD and WS to infer the arrival of a YS event. Certainly, this inference is better verified by the change of the trend of PM10-2.5 level.
From the chemical compositions of the aerosols, it could be found that the average mass fractions of sulfate, nitrate and carbon are lower in YS periods than that in NYS periods. It demonstrates that the dust storm brings little PM2.5, most PM2.5 of is contributed from local activities. In addition, the PM10 volume size distributions show that fine fraction is predominant in NYS periods, while coarse mode is more significant in NY periods.
During NY periods, PM2.5 and PM10 were also collected manually, the results showed a consistency in variations of mass and carbonaceous content with automatic continuous measurements. This demonstrates the reliability of the manual collection as well as the automatic continuous measurement. From the HYSPLIT model (Draxel, 1999), one can categorize the 72-hour backward air trajectory into 6 types. For the periods associated with the YS backward air trajectory, the PM10-2.5 level is higher than PM2.5 level. The trend is reversed for the NYS periods. For aerosol carbonaceous contents, the variation between YS and NYS is very little. As to the elemental contents, the air trajectory associated with source regions carry predominant Si, Ca, Al, and Fe in the coarse particles; the enhancement factor calculation shows these elements were contributed from crustal materials. For water-soluble ions, the air trajectories from source regions transport predominant Ca2+ and Mg2+. From the application of enhancement factor to the water-soluble ions, Cl-and Mg2+were originated from the sea, while Ca2+, SO42-, and K+ were from non-sea-salt sources.
目 錄
目錄Ⅰ
圖目錄Ⅳ
表目錄Ⅵ
1前言1
1.1研究動機1
1.2研究目的3
2文獻回顧4
2.1氣膠的來源及特性4
2.1.1氣膠主要化學組成及其來源4
2.1.2氣膠的化學成份與粒徑分佈5
2.1.3氣膠的化學組成7
2.1.3.1氣膠的碳成份7
2.1.3.2氣膠水溶性離子成份8
2.2氣膠特性的即時監測10
2.2.1氣膠質量濃度10
2.2.2氣膠粒徑分佈12
2.2.3氣膠化學組成成份14
2.2.3.1含碳量分析14
2.2.3.2硝酸鹽成份分析16
2.2.3.3硫酸鹽成份分析17
2.3台灣黃沙時期氣膠特徵18
2.3.1大陸沙塵暴的發生與影響18
2.3.2沙塵暴發生時期的氣膠特徵19
2.4氣膠對人體健康影響研究21
3研究方法23
3.1採樣時程及觀測地點描述23
3.2氣膠特性的監測及採集方法26
3.2.1自動監測儀器27
3.2.1.1氣膠質量濃度監測儀R&P 1400a27
3.2.1.2氣膠碳成份監測儀R&P 540029
3.2.1.3氣膠硝酸鹽成份監測儀R&P 8400N31
3.2.1.4氣膠硫酸鹽成份監測儀R&P 8400S33
3.2.1.5氣膠數目粒徑分佈監測儀PMS Model PCASP-X35
3.2.1.6次微米氣膠粒徑分佈監測儀SMPS38
3.2.2人工採樣器42
3.2.2.1R&P Partisol Model 2300 Speciation Sampler42
3.2.2.2Andersen RAAS 2.5-40046
3.2.2.3自動採樣和收集單元(Automatic Cartridge Collection Unite,ACCU)49
3.2.3採樣方法50
3.2.4濾紙的前處理52
3.2.5樣品的運送及保存52
3.3樣品分析方法53
3.3.1氣膠質量秤重分析53
3.3.2氣膠元素分析53
3.3.3水溶性離子分析54
3.3.4氣膠碳元素分析56
4結果與討論58
4.1黃沙時期即時氣膠特性及氣象條件60
4.1.1第一波黃沙時期(2月11~12日)61
4.1.2第二波黃沙時期(3月6∼9日)63
4.1.3第三波黃沙事件日(3月18~20日)67
4.1.4第四波黃沙事件日(3月23~24日)71
4.1.5第五波黃沙事件日(3月31~4月1日)74
4.1.6第六波黃沙事件日(4月8~10日)77
4.1.7第七波黃沙事件日(4月11~15日)80
4.1.8第八波黃沙事件日(4月17~19日)83
4.1.9黃沙時期即時監測值特性總結86
4.2人工採樣與即時監測結果比較88
4.2.1氣膠質量濃度88
4.2.2氣膠碳成份濃度92
4.3黃沙時期氣膠化學特性與來源探討96
4.3.1黃沙時期72小時逆軌跡分類96
4.3.2黃沙時期氣膠質量濃度的變化102
4.3.3黃沙時期氣膠碳成份的變化104
4.3.4黃沙時期的氣膠特徵元素成份107
4.3.5黃沙時期的氣膠特徵離子成份118
4.3.6重建質量濃度與秤重質量濃度相關性129
5結論134
6參考文獻137
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