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研究生:曾勝揚
研究生(外文):Sheng-Yang Zeng
論文名稱:磷化銦鎵/砷化鎵平面摻雜異質接面雙極性電晶體之研製
論文名稱(外文):磷化銦鎵/砷化鎵平面摻雜異質接面雙極性電晶體之研製
指導教授:李清庭
指導教授(外文):Ching-Ting Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:光電科學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:87
中文關鍵詞:歐姆接觸突尖型摻雜原子層摻雜脈波摻雜脈衝摻雜平面摻雜砷化鎵磷化銦鎵異質接面異質接面雙極性電晶體
外文關鍵詞:HBTheterojunctionInGaPGaAsplanar dopingdelta dopingpulse dopingatomic layer dopingspike dopingOhmic contact
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摘要
本論文利用分子束磊晶(Molecular Beam Epitaxy, MBE)成長磷化銦鎵/砷化鎵平面摻雜異質接面雙極性電晶體(InGaP/GaAs δ doped HBT),利用平面摻雜(δ doped)技術提昇基極的金屬-半導體之歐姆接觸特性,降低基極之串聯阻抗,進而提高功率增益截止頻率或最大振盪頻率(fmax),並利用平面摻雜技術對基極區域電位的調變(potential modulation),內建基極區域之加速電場,降低載子穿越基極之傳輸時間,進而提高截止頻率(cut-off frequency, ft)。
首先比較具有空間層(spacer)及平面摻雜的磷化銦鎵/砷化鎵異質接面雙極性電晶體(InGaP/GaAs HBT)與一般磷化銦鎵/砷化鎵異質接面雙極性電晶體之直流特性差異,並針對基極之歐姆接觸做進一步的探討。
在基極與未摻雜(undoped)之空間層間加入平面摻雜,調變基極金屬電極與基極半導體間之電位與雜質濃度,可以有效改善基極金屬電極的特徵電阻值(ρC),其值約在10-4 ~ 10-5 (Ω-cm2),證明平面摻雜對金屬與半導體接面歐姆接觸特性有顯著的提昇。
由射極-基極接面的電特性量測,具有空間層及平面摻雜之磷化銦鎵/砷化鎵異質接面雙極性電晶體(A結構)之起始電壓(Vturn-on)約1.45V,而一般不具空間層及平面摻雜的磷化銦鎵/砷化鎵異質接面雙極性電晶體(B結構)只有1.1V,可了解平面摻雜對此異質接面具有顯著的電位調變作用;此外,A結構明顯有較高的漏電流,在-2V時約數十個nA,而B結構只有數個nA。
於梗美樂-普恩繪圖(Gummel-Poon Plot)量測中,由於A結構之射極-基極有較大的漏電流,所以其電流增益約只有4,而B結構之電流增益約40;A結構主要是靠載子穿隧(tunneling)效應為電流成分,故理想因子η > 2,而B結構η接近於1,是以晶體復合電流(IB,bulk)為主要成分。
而在共射極電流增益(IC-VCE)量測中,兩個結構都不受歐利效應(Early effect)之影響,表示基極-集極接面濃度分佈相當陡峭(abrupt)。萃取補償電壓(VCE,offset)可以得到A結構約0.55V,B結構約0.15V,平面摻雜之電位調變在此得到應證。
摘要
本論文利用分子束磊晶(Molecular Beam Epitaxy, MBE)成長磷化銦鎵/砷化鎵平面摻雜異質接面雙極性電晶體(InGaP/GaAs δ doped HBT),利用平面摻雜(δ doped)技術提昇基極的金屬-半導體之歐姆接觸特性,降低基極之串聯阻抗,進而提高功率增益截止頻率或最大振盪頻率(fmax),並利用平面摻雜技術對基極區域電位的調變(potential modulation),內建基極區域之加速電場,降低載子穿越基極之傳輸時間,進而提高截止頻率(cut-off frequency, ft)。
首先比較具有空間層(spacer)及平面摻雜的磷化銦鎵/砷化鎵異質接面雙極性電晶體(InGaP/GaAs HBT)與一般磷化銦鎵/砷化鎵異質接面雙極性電晶體之直流特性差異,並針對基極之歐姆接觸做進一步的探討。
在基極與未摻雜(undoped)之空間層間加入平面摻雜,調變基極金屬電極與基極半導體間之電位與雜質濃度,可以有效改善基極金屬電極的特徵電阻值(ρC),其值約在10-4 ~ 10-5 (Ω-cm2),證明平面摻雜對金屬與半導體接面歐姆接觸特性有顯著的提昇。
由射極-基極接面的電特性量測,具有空間層及平面摻雜之磷化銦鎵/砷化鎵異質接面雙極性電晶體(A結構)之起始電壓(Vturn-on)約1.45V,而一般不具空間層及平面摻雜的磷化銦鎵/砷化鎵異質接面雙極性電晶體(B結構)只有1.1V,可了解平面摻雜對此異質接面具有顯著的電位調變作用;此外,A結構明顯有較高的漏電流,在-2V時約數十個nA,而B結構只有數個nA。
於梗美樂-普恩繪圖(Gummel-Poon Plot)量測中,由於A結構之射極-基極有較大的漏電流,所以其電流增益約只有4,而B結構之電流增益約40;A結構主要是靠載子穿隧(tunneling)效應為電流成分,故理想因子η > 2,而B結構η接近於1,是以晶體復合電流(IB,bulk)為主要成分。
而在共射極電流增益(IC-VCE)量測中,兩個結構都不受歐利效應(Early effect)之影響,表示基極-集極接面濃度分佈相當陡峭(abrupt)。萃取補償電壓(VCE,offset)可以得到A結構約0.55V,B結構約0.15V,平面摻雜之電位調變在此得到應證。
目錄
圖目錄III
表目錄VI
第一章 導論01
1.1 研究動機01
1.2 異質接面雙極性電晶體簡介03
第二章 異質接面雙極性電晶體的基本原理及平面摻雜技術與應用05
2.1 異質接面雙極性電晶體的基本原理05
2.2 平面摻雜技術的基本原理10
2.2-1 平面摻雜基本觀念10
2.2-2 平面摻雜之成長技術11
2.3 平面摻雜技術的應用14
2.3-1 電位和電場的分析15
2.3-2 平面摻雜於異質接面雙極性電晶體之應用17
第三章 異質接面雙極性電晶體結構與製作流程19
3.1 異質接面雙極性電晶體的磊晶結構19
3.2 異質接面雙極性電晶體的製程步驟23
第四章 異質接面雙極性電晶體元件特性的量測與分析30
4.1 異質接面雙極性電晶體的直流特性量測30
4.2-1 特徵接觸電阻的量測與分析31
4.2-2 射極與基極異質接面的量測與分析32
4.2-3 基極與集極接面的量測與分析33
4.2-4 梗美樂-普恩繪圖量測與分析34
4.2-5 共射極輸出特性及補償電壓之量測與分析35
第五章 結論與未來展望38
參考資料41
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