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研究生:呂燕堂
研究生(外文):Yen-Tang Lyu
論文名稱:金屬-半導體介面接觸特性之研究
論文名稱(外文):The study of performances of metal-semiconductor contacts
指導教授:李清庭
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:光電科學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:138
中文關鍵詞:砷化銦/砷化鎵銦漸變層/砷化鎵磷化鎵銦蕭基接觸
外文關鍵詞:PtSi/p-Si(100) Schottky barrier detectorNd/Al ohmic contact on n-type GaNInAs/gradedInGaAs/GaAs ohmic contactInGaP Schottky contact
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封面
ABSTRACT
Acknowledgments
List of Tables
List of Figures
Chapter 1 Introduction
Chapter 2 Metal-Semiconductor Phenomena Related to Ohmic Contact Formation and Schottky Barrier
2-1 Theory of Metal-Semiconductor Contact and Current Transport Mechanism
2-2 Measurement of Contact Resistance
2-3 Measurement of Barrier Height
2-3-1 Capacitance-Voltage Measurement
2-3-2 Current-Voltage Measurement
2-3-3 Photoelectric Measurement
Chapter 3 Film Thickness Dependence on the Electrical and Optical Properties of PtSi/p-Si(100) Schottky Barrier Detector
3-1 Experimental Procedures
3-2 Results and Discussion
3-3 Summary
Chapter 4 Thermal Realiability and Characterization of InGaP Schottky Contact with Ti/Pt/Au Metals
4-1 Device Structure and Fabrication
4-2 Experimental Results and Discussion
4-3 Summary
Chapter 5 Ohmic Performance Comparison for Ti/Ni/Au and Ti/Pt/Au on InAs/Graded InGaAs/GaAs Layers
5-1 Epitaxial Growth and Ohmic Fabrication
5-2 Experimental Results and Discussion
5-3 Summary
Chapter 6 Low Resistance Ohmic Contact on n-Type GaN and Performance Improvement of GaN LED Using Chemical Solutions Treatment on n-GaN
6-1 Low Resistance Bilayer Nd/Al Ohmic Contacts on n-Type GaN
6-1-1 Experimental Processes
6-1-2 Experimental Results and Discussion
6-1-3 Summary
6-2 Contributions of Ion-Induced Damage Restoration and Removal in GaN Light Emitting Diodes
6-2-1 Experimental Processes
6-2-2 Experimental Results and Discussion
6-2-3 Summary
Chapter 7 Conclusions
References of Chapter 1
References of Chapter 2
References of Chapter 3
References of Chapter 4
References of Chapter 5
References of Chapter 6
Publication List


References of Chapter 1 [1]F. Braun, “On the Conduction Through Sulfurmetals,” Annual. Phys. Chem., vol. 153, pp. 556-563, 1874.[2]W. schottky, “Semiconductor Theory of the Blocking Layer” (in German), Naturwissenschaften vol. 26, 843, 1938; “On the Semiconductor Theory of Blocking and Point Contact Rectifiers” (in German), Z. Phys., vol. 113, pp.367-414, 1939; “Simplified and Expanded Theory of Boundary Layer Rectifiers” (in German), Z. Phys., vol. 118, pp.539-592,1942.[3]M.S. Shur and T.A. Fjeldly, “Compound-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors,” in Modern Semiconductor Device Physics, edited by S.M. Sze, pp. 81-135, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1981[4]T.C. Shen, G.B. Gao, and H. Morkoc, “Recent Developments in Ohmic Contacts for III-V Compound Semiconductor,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., vol. B 10, pp. 2113-2132, 1992.[5]J.W. Wu, C.Y. Chang, K.C. Lin, E.Y. Chang, J.S. Chen, and C.T. Lee, “The Thermal Stability of Ohmic Contact to N-Type InGaAs Layer,” J. Electron. Mater., vol. 24, pp. 79-82, 1995. References of Chapter 2[1] M. S. Tyagi, “Physics of Schottky Barrier Junctions” in Metal-Semiconductor Schottky Barrier Junctions and Their Applications, edited by B.L. Sharma, Plenum Press, New York, 1984.[2] D. K. Schroder, Semiconductor Material and Device Characterization, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1998.[3] A. G. Milnes and D. L. Feucht, Heterojunction and Metal-Semiconductor Junctions, Academic Press, 1972.[4] S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1981.[5] E. H. Rhoderick, Metal-Semiconductor Contacts, Oxford University Press, 1978.[6] J. Bardeen, “Surface States and Rectification at a Metal-Semiconductor Contact,” Phys. Rev., vol. 71, pp. 717-727, 1947.[7] C. A. Mead, “Metal-Semiconductor Surface Barriers,” Solid-St. Electron., vol. 9, pp. 1023-1032, 1966. [8] P. L. Hower, W. W. Hooper, B. R. Cairns, R. D. Fairman and D. A. Tremer, In Semiconductors and Semimetals vol. 7A, Academic Press, 1971.[9] H. H. Berger,”Models for Contacts to Planar Devices,” Solid-St. Electron., vol. 15, pp. 145-158, 1972.[10] H. H. Berger, “Contact Resistance and Contact Resistivity,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 119, pp. 507-514, 1972.[11] H. Murrmann and D. Widmann, “Current Crowding on Metal Contacts to Planar Devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. ED- 16, pp. 1022-1024, 1969.[12] S. Dhar and B. R. Nag, “A Pulse Method for the Measurement of Contact Resistance and Bulk Resistance of Semiconductors Samples,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 125, pp. 508-510, 1978.[13] R. H. Cox and H. Strack, “Ohmic Contacts for GaAs Devices,” Solid-St. Electron., vol. 10, pp. 1213-1218, 1967.[14] A. Martinez, Thesis, Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse , 1976.[15] Y. K. Fang, C. Y. Chang and Y. K. Su, “Contact Resistance in Metal-Semiconductor Systems, “ Solid-St. Electron., vol. 22, pp. 933-938, 1979.[16] L. E. Terry and R. W. Wilson, “Metallization Systems for Silicon Integrated Circuits,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 57, 1580-1586, 1969.[17] E. Kuphal, “Low Resistance Ohmic Contancts to n- and p-InP,” Solid-St. Electron., vol. 24, pp. 69-78, 1981.[18] W. Shockly, Rep. No. AL-TDR-64-207, Air Force Atomic Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, 1964.[19] H. Murrmann and D. Widmann, “Messung Des Ubergangswiderstandes zwi-schen metall und diffusionsschicht in Si-planar elementen,” Solid-St. Electron., vol. 12, pp. 879-886, 1969.[20] G. K. Reeves and H. B. Harrison, “Obtaining the Specific Contact Resistance Transmission Line Model Measurements,” IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. EDL-3, pp. 111-113, 1982.[21] A. M. Goodman, “Metal-semiconductor barrier height measurement by differential capacitance method-One carrier system,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 329-338, 1963.[22] R. H. Fowler, “The analysis of photoelectric sensitivity curves for clean metals at various temperatures,” Phys. Rev., vol. 38, 45-56, 1931. References of Chapter 3[1] W. F. Kosonoky, “Review of Schottky-barrier imager technology(Invited Paper),” SPIE proceedings, Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays, Orlando, 1308, pp. 2-26, SPIE Press, Washington, 1990. [2] D. L. Clark and J.R. Berry, G. L. Compagna, “Design and performance of a 486 x 640 pixel platinum silicide IR imaging system,” SPIE Proceedings, Infrared Technology XVII, San Diego, 1540, pp. 303-311, SPIE Press, Washington, DC, 1991. [3] N. Yutani, H. Yagi, M. Kimata, J. Nakanishi, S. Nagayoshi, and N. Tsubouchi, in: Proceeding of the International Electron Devices Meeting, Detectors, Sensors, and Displays-Charge Coupled Devices and MSM Photodetector, Washington DC, pp. 175-178, 1991. [4] H. B Ghozlene, P. Beaufrére, and A. Authier, “Crystallography of PtSi Films on (001) silicon,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 49, pp. 3998-4004, 1978. [5] K. Fuji, H. Kanaya, Y.Kumagai, F. Hasegawa, and E. Yamaka, “Low-Temperature Formation of the PtSi Layer by Codeposition of Pt and Si in a Molecular Beam Epitaxy System,” Jpn.. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 30, pp. L455-L457, 1991. [6] K. Konuma and H. Utsumi, “Epitaxial orientation of PtSi grown by Pt deposition on heated Si(100) substrate,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 76, pp. 2181-2184, 1994. [7] Y. Kumagai, K. Ishimoto, S. Hashimoto, K. Park, and F. Hasegawa, “Comparison of Planar to Columnar Transformation of PtSi Layers on Si(001) and Si(111) Substrates in the Si Capping Layer Growth Process,” Jpn.. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 4621-4626, 1995. [8] G. J. Horng, C. Y. Chang, T. Chang, C. Ho, and C.S. Wu, “Microstructure Effect on Quantum Efficiency in PtSi/p-Si(100) Schottky Barrier Detector,” J. Materials Chem. and Phys., vol. 68, pp. 17-21, 2001.[9] H. Elabd and W.F. Kosonocky, “Theory and Measurements of Photoresponse for Thin Film Pd2Si and PtSi Infrared Schottky-Barrier Detectors with Optical Cavity,” RCA review, vol. 43, pp. 569-589, 1982. [10] P. G. McCafferty, A. Sellai, P. Dawson, and H. Elabd, “Barrier Characteristics of PtSi/p-Si Schottky Diodes as Determined from I-V-T Measurements,” Solid-St. Electron., vol. 39, pp. 583-592, 1996. [11] W. A. Cabanski and M.J. Schulz, “Electronic and IR-Optical Properties of Silicide/Silicon Interface,” Infrared Phys., vol. 32, pp. 29-44, 1991. [12] B. R. Capone, R.W. Taylor, and W.F. Kosonocky, ”Design and characterization of a Schottky infrared charge coupled device (IRCCD) focal plane array,” Opt. Eng., vol. 21, pp. 945-950, 1982. [13] V. L. Dalel, “Simple Model for Internal Photoemission,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 46, pp. 2274-2279, 1971. [14] J. Silverman, P. Pellegrint, J.Comer, A. Golvbovic, M. Weeks, J. Mooney, and J. Fitzgerald, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., vol. 54, pp. 515-520, 1986. [15] J. M. Moony and J. Silverman, “The Theory of Hot-Electron Photoemission in Schottky-Barrier IR Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. ED-32, pp. 33-39, 1985. References of Chapter 4[1] G. H. Olsen, M. Ettenberg and R. V. D. Aiello, “Vapor-grown InGaP/GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 606-608, 1978.[2] S. H. Groves, Z. L. Liau, S. C. Palmateer and J. N. Walpole, “GaInP mass transport and GaInP/GaAs buried-heterostructure lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 56, pp. 312-314, 1990.[3] D. Jung, K. Hyuga and S. M. Bedair, “GaInP/GaAs Schottky diodes grown by atomic layer epitaxy and their application to MESFETs,” Semicond. Sci. & Technol., vol. 9, pp. 2107-2117, 1994.[4] M. Takikawa and K. Joshin, “Pseudomorphic n-InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs high electron mobility transistors for low-noise amplifiers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. EDL-14, pp. 406-408, 1993.[5] H. P. Shiao, C. D. Tsai, Y.K. Tu, W. Lin ande C. T. Lee, The Pacific Rim conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), p.96, 1995.[6] H. P. Shiao, C. Y. Wang, Y. K. Tu, W. Lin and C. T. Lee, “InGaP/GaAs Multiquantum Barrier Structures Prepared by Low-Pressure Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Solid-St. Electron., vol. 38, pp. 2001-2004, 1995.[7] K. Shiojima, K. Nishimura, T. Aoki and F. Hyuga, “Large Schottky barrier formed on epitaxial InGaP grown on GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 77, 390-392, 1995.[8] M. Ozeki, K. Kodama and A. Shibatoni, Gallium Arsenide and Related Compounds (Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 63), p.323, 1981. References of Chapter 5[1] Y. Shiraishi, N. Furuhata, A. Okamoto, “Influence of metal/n-InAs/interlayer/n-GaAs structure on nonalloyed ohmic contact resistance,” J. Appl. Phys., 76, pp. 5099-5110, 1994. [2] C. K. Peng, T. Won, J. Chen, C. Litton, H. Morkoc, “High-gain n-p-n and p-n-p InGaAs/InAlAs double-heterojunction bipolar transistors with InAs cap layers by molecular-beam epitaxy,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 35, pp. 2445-2446, 1988.[3] S. S. Chen, C. C. Lin, W. H. Lan, S. L. Tu, C. K. Peng, ”Characteristics of Nonalloyed Pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistors Using InAs/InxGa1-xAs(x = 12> 0)/AlyGa1-yAs(y = 02> 0.3) Contact Structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 3443-3447, 1997. [4] J. M. Woodall, J. L. Freeouf, G. D. Pittit, T. J. Jackson, P. Kirchner, “Ohmic Contacts to n-GaAs Using Graded Band Gap Layers of Ga1-xInxAs Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., vol. 19, pp. 626-627, 1981. [5] C. T. Lee, H.P. Shiao, N. T. Yeh, C. D. Tsai, Y. T. Lyu, Y. K. Tu,”Thermal Reliability and Characterization of InGaP Schottky Contact with Ti/Pt/Au Metals,” Solid-St. Electron., vol. 41, pp.1-5, 1997. [6] C. K. Peng, G. Ji, N. S. Kumar, H. Morkoc, “Extremely low resistance nonalloyed ohmic contacts on GaAs using InAs/InGaAs and InAs/GaAs strained-layer superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 53, pp. 900-901, 1988. [7] I. Mehdi, U. K. Reddy, J. Oh, J. R. East, G. I. Hadded, “Nonalloyed and alloyed low-resistance ohmic contacts with good morphology for GaAs using a graded InGaAs cap layer,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 65, pp. 867-869, 1989. [8] G. Stareev, H. Kunzel, “Tunneling behavior of extremely low resistancenonalloyed Ti/Pt/Au contacts to n(p)-InGaAs and n-InAs/InGaAs,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 74, pp. 7592-7595, 1993. [9] T. C. Shen, G. B. Gao, H. Morkoc, “Recent Developments in Ohmic Contacts for III-V Compound Semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., vol. B 10, pp. 2113-2132, 1992. [10] J. W. Wu, C.Y. Chang, K. C. Lin, E. Y. Chang, J. S. Chen, C. T. Lee, “The Thermal Stability of Ohmic Contact to n-type InGaAs Layer,” J. Electron. Mater., vol. 24, pp. 79-82, 1995. [11] Y. C. Chou, C. T. Lee, C. D. Chen, K. C. Chou, “Growth Temperature Dependence of Low-Noise MESFET in Molecular-Beam Epitaxy,” Electron. Lett., vol. 23, pp. 7-8, 1987. [12] A. K. Sinha, T. E. Smith, M. H. Read, J. M. Poate, “N-GaAs Schottky diodes metallized with Ti and Pt/Ti,” Solid-St. Electron., vol. 19, pp. 489-492, 1994. References of Chapter 6[1] S. Strite and H. Morkoc, “GaN,AlN, and InN:A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., vol. B 10, pp. 1237-1266, 1992.[2] M. A. Khan, J. N. Kuznia, A. R. Bhattarai and D. T. Olson, “Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor based on Single Crystal GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 62, pp. 1786-1787, 1993.[3] M. A. Khan, A. R. Bhattarai, J. N. Kuznia and D. T. Olson, “High Electron Mobility Transistor based on a GaN-AlxGa1-xN heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 63, pp. 1214-1215, 1993.[4] M. A. Khan, J. N. Kuznia, D. T. Olson, M. Blasingame and A. R. Bhattarai, “Schottky barrier photodetector based on Mg-doped p-type GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.. 63, pp.2455-2456, 1993.[5] S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, pp. 1687-1689, 1994.[6] X. H. Yang, T. J. Schmidt, W. Shan and J. J. Song, “Above room temperature near ultraviolet lasing from an optically pumped GaN film grown on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 66, pp. 1-3, 1995.[7] M. E. Lin, Z. Ma, F. Y. Huang, Z. F. Fan, L. H. Allen and H. Morkoc, “Low Resistance Ohmic Contacts on wide band-gap GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 64, pp. 1003-1005, 1994.[8] J. S. Foresi and T. D. Moustakes, “Metal contacts to gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 62, pp. 2859-2861, 1993.[9] J. D. Guo, C. I. Lin, M. S. Feng, F. M. Pan, G. C. Chi and C. T. Lee, “A bilayer Ti/Ag Ohmic Contact for highly doped n-type GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 68, pp. 235-237, 1996.[10] V. F. Masterov and L. F. Zakharenkov, “Rare-earth elements in III-V semiconductors (review),” Sov. Phys. Semicond., vol. 24, pp. 383-396, 1990.[11] W. J. Ho, M. C. Wu, Y. K. Tu and H. H. Shih, “High responsivity GaInAs PIN photodiode by using erbium gettering,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. vol. 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