跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(75.101.211.110) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/01/26 13:46
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:蔡慶堂
研究生(外文):Ching-Taung Tsai
論文名稱:主管管理才能評鑑360度回饋對受評者態度之影響因素探討─以在臺某外商化工廠為例
指導教授:林文政林文政引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-jeng Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:管理學院高階主管企管碩士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:123
中文關鍵詞:主管管理才能360度回饋多源回饋自他評差異自我肯定對評鑑來源的評鑑能力知覺對360度主管管理才能評鑑的態度。
外文關鍵詞:360
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:23
  • 點閱點閱:635
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:4
360度回饋(360-degree feedback)是近年來無論在學術界或是實務領域相當受重視的課題,例如回饋來源除了受評者的直屬主管外,同時也讓受評者的部屬、同事、自己,甚至是顧客都能有機會提供不同但相關的資訊。在用途上,360度回饋可應用於訓練發展、績效評鑑、選人任用等,若用於管理才能發展的應用,個人發展目標可藉由360度多源回饋的系統與公司策略相結合,增進管理者的「自我覺察」,進而幫助其規劃未來,提升領導效能。

儘管受評者能經由360度回饋獲得更多瞭解自己優缺點的寶貴資訊,但當評鑑來源多源化,也意謂著受評者所收到之評鑑結果與評鑑前所持有的自我概念有相當差距時,可能對受評者產生影響。而且,在推行360度多源回饋時,受評者對於評鑑方式的態度是很重要的,因為它可能會影響受評者是否接受360度多源回饋評鑑系統與結果。因此,本研究之目的之一在於探討受評者對360度管理才能評鑑之態度,希望藉由了解受評者對360度管理才能評鑑系統的態度,並針對受評者的態度所引發的問題加以改善,使受評者能肯定不同評鑑來源的評鑑結果,進而改善與發展本身所缺乏的管理才能。

本研究以國內一家外商為例,探討其在國內三家化學製造廠,受評者對360度主管管理才能多源評鑑的態度。

在結果方面,本研究發現,對直屬主管、同事評鑑能力的信任是影響受評者態度的最大因素,其次為「人際關係」中與同事的關係(TMX),另外「服務年資」、「自我肯定」、「性別」在本研究中亦對受評者態度造成影響,但影響力相對較弱。而針對分析之結果,本研究在結論中亦提出管理實務上的意涵並針對研究個案之擴大、研究對象之擴大、研究變數之增加、研究主題之擴充,提出進一步研究的建議。
第一章 緒論.........................................................................….....1
第一節研究背景與動機...........................................................1
第二節研究目的..................................................................….7
第二章 文獻探討....................................................................…..8
第一節管理才能..............................................................…….8
第二節360 度回饋............................................................….19
第三節360 度回饋與受評者態度之關係探討...............….23
第三章 研究方法...................................................................….37
第一節研究架構................................................................….37
第二節研究流程…………………………………...…….....38
第三節變項操作性定義....................................................….40
第四節研究假設.................................................................…41
第五節研究工具................................................................….42
第六節研究設計.................................................................…52
第七節資料分析方法......................................................…...54
第八節 個案公司簡介…………………………………...55
第四章 資料分析與研究結果.....…………..............................56
第一節樣本人口統計變項描述...............................….…...56
第二節研究變項之描述性統計分析................................…58
第三節管理才能問卷信效度析.........................................…60
第四節研究變項之相關分析.............................................…73
第五節影響管理才能評鑑態度因素之逐步迴歸分析........76
第六節單因子變異數分析…….…………………………84
第五章 結論與建議 ..............................................................….87
第一節研究結論...........................…......................................87
第二節研究限制.....................................................................93
第三節研究建議.................................................................…94
參考文獻....................................................................................100


表目錄
表1-1-1 個案公司管理人員領導能力和管理才能之標準
-五大構面.…………………………….…………….……….3
表1-1-2 個案公司管理人員領導能力和管理之才能標準
-二十三個管理才能指標……………………..…………….4
表2-1-1 一般管理模式.……………………………... .......…......….13
表2-1-2 管理行為之綜合分類模式…………...…..............…..……14
表2-1-3 管理才能衡量構面.......…...............…………………..........15
表2-1-4 管理才能模型架構....…………….......................…......…...16
表2-1-5 受測公司主管管理才能評鑑量表……………………....17
表3-3-1「高估者」、「低估者」、「一致/高者」及「一致/低者」分類模……………………………………………………...27
表3-5-1 管理才能評鑑量表之構面與題項…………………… ..…42
表3-5-2 管理才能各構面之信度分析(預測試)…………..……..43
表3-5-3 信度分析結果表-「業務方針」(預測試)……..………….44
表3-5-4 信度分析結果表-「方法的應用」(預測試)………………45
表3-5-5 信度分析結果表-「人際網路/團隊的建立」(預測試)……46
表3-5-6 信度分析結果表-「人力發展」(預測試)………………..47
表3-5-7 信度分析結果表-「個人領導能力」(預測試)……...……48
表3-5-8 再測試之管理才能構面之信度分析……………………...49
表3-5-9 再測試與預測試管理才能構面之相關性比較……...…....49
表3-5-10 360度主管管理才能評鑑態度量表題項分類表…… …...51
表3-6-1 各廠人數統計表....……..............................................……..52
表3-6-2 量表回收統計表........................................…................……53
表4-1-1 問卷回收狀況..............................................................….… 56
表4-1-2 樣本基本資料統計表.............................................…...……57
表4-2-1 管理才能各評鑑來源之平均數與標準差…………… …..58
表4-2-2 對360度主管管理才能評鑑的態度平均數與標準差.……59
表4-2-3 影響管理才能評鑑態度因素之平均數與標準差.........…..59
表4-3-1 管理才能各構面之信度分析:階段一vs.預測試…..……60
表4-3-2 信度分析結果表-「業務方針」……………………..…….61
表4-3-3 信度分析結果表-「方法的應用」…..…………………….62
表4-3-4 信度分析結果表-「人際網路/團隊的建立」……..………63
表4-3-5 信度分析結果表-「人力發展」………………..………….64
表4-3-6 信度分析結果表-「個人領導能力」………………………65
表4-3-7 360度主管管理才能評鑑態度各構面之信度分析….......66

表4-3-8 管理才能評鑑態度之「系統接受性」/「系統公平性」
群組信度分析…………………………………………...…66
表4-3-9 管理才能評鑑態度結果「接受性」/「公平性」/
「有用性」群組信度分析…………………………...……67
表4-3-10主管管理才能評鑑「系統態度」/「結果態度」
之信度分析 …………………………………………...…..68
表4-3-11 主管管理才能評鑑態度之「總信度」群組分析……….…69
表4-3-12 影響360度主管管理才能評鑑態度因素之信度分析.…..69
表4-3-13 「自我肯定」群組之信度分析……………………………70
表4-3-14 「對評鑑來源評鑑能力的知覺」群組之信度分析….…..70
表4-3-15 「與上司的關係」群組之信度分析………………………71
表4-3-16 「與部屬的關係」群組之信度分析……..………………71
表4-3-17 「與同事的關係」群組之信度分析………………………72
表4-4-1 360度主管管理才能評鑑態度各構面之PEARSON’S
積差相關矩陣....................................................…………..74
表4-4-2 自變項之PEARSON’S 積差相關陣..…..……...…….…....75
表4-5-1 多元迴歸線性檢定....................................................…..…..77
表4-5-2 各自變數與對360度主管管理才能評鑑態度之逐步
迴歸分析.........................................……….......….………..78
表4-5-3 各自變數對系統接受性態度之逐步迴歸分析...…..…......79
表4-5-4 各自變數與對系統公平性態度之逐步迴歸分析...….…...80表4-5-5 各自變數對結果接受性態度之逐步迴歸分析.......….…...81
表4-5-6 各自變數對結果公平性態度之逐步迴歸分析...………....82
表4-5-7 各自變數對結果有用性態度之逐步迴歸分析....…....…...83
表4-6-1 性別對評鑑態度之變異數分析………………………...…84表4-6-2 性別對回饋差異之變異數分……………….…………......85
表4-6-3 部門別對評鑑態度之變異數分析……………………...…85
表4-6-4 自他評一致性對評鑑態度之變異數分析………………...86
表5-1-1 360度主管管理才能評鑑態度之影響因素分析結果…...89
表5-3-1 個案公司23項管理才能優勢及待改善機會….………..…99



圖目錄
圖1-1-1 個案公司目標發展的程序…………………………………..6
圖2-1-1冰山模型………………………... ..………………………..10
圖2-1-2核心與表面的才能………………...…………...…………..11
圖2-2-1 360度回饋示意圖................…................................…....... 19
圖3-1-1 本研究架構圖主管對360度主管管理才能評鑑態度...…..37
圖3-2-1 本研究架構圖.........................................................…...……38
一、中文部分王淑貞(民88),新進人員角色期望對其工作行為之影響;並檢驗主管關係與同事關係之干擾效果。國立中央大學人力資源管理碩士論文。呂勝瑛(民73),諮商理論與技術,台北:五南圖書出版有限公司。吳秉恩(民88),分享式人力資源管理,台北:翰蘆圖書出版有限公司。林詩詮、鄭伯壎譯(H. Joseph Reitz 原著)(民78),組織行為,台北:中華企管發展中心。紀原欽(民90),人力資源專業人員對專業才能評鑑多源回饋之態度影響因素探討-以電子業為例。國立中央大學人力資源管理碩士論徐坤裕(民88),多源績效評鑑影響之探討,元智大學管理研究所碩士論文。孫允寬(民85),自尊心:六項自尊基礎的實踐法,遠流:台北市。袁國森(民86),績效評鑑中程序公平及分配公平認知對員工對工作績效評鑑態度之影響:以中華電信某公司為例,國立中央大學人力資源管理研究所碩士論文。酗h軍(民79),管理學。東華書局,頁17-19張裕隆(民87),我國「管理才能評鑑工具」發展及信效度分析研究,國科會專題研究報告。陳玉山(民86),能力基礎途應用在人力資源管理之研究,國立政治大學公共行政研究所出版之碩士論文。陳璧婉、陳雁齡(民87),「臺南市國中學生焦慮、自尊心、內外控信念和生活壓力之相關研究」,臺南師院學生學刊,第十九期,頁39-59。黃 煒(民88),管理才能發展方案系統性評鑑之實驗研究-以神經語言程式學為例,長榮管理學院經營管理研究所碩士論文。劉岡憬(民87),以360度回饋探討主管人員自他評一致性與領導效能關係之實證研究,國立政治大學心理研究所碩士論文。劉麗華(民89),主管管理才能評鑑360度回饋對受評者態度之影響。國立中央大學人力資源管理碩士論文鄧國宏(民89),主管管理才能評鑑量表之建立與信、效度分析-以某商銀為例,國立中央大學人力資源管理碩士論文。嚴秀茹(民86),「360度績效評鑑方法之初探-多角化評鑑與管理才能發展」,1997年企業管理國際研討會論文集,頁75-84。葛樹人(民80),心理測驗學,台北:桂冠圖書公司。藍采風、廖榮利(民83),組織行為學,頁149-151 二、英文部分Allport,G.W.(1954).Thenature of prejudice. Cambridge. MA:Addison-Wesley.Antonioni, D. (1996). Designing an effective 360-degree appraisal feedback process. Organizational Dynamics, 25,. 24-38.Ashford, S.J. (1986). Feedback-seeking in indivudual adaptation: A resource perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 29, 465-487.Ashford, S.J. (1989). Self-assessments in organizations: A literature review andintegrative model. Research in Organizational Behavior, 11, 113-174.Atwater, L. & Waldman, D. (1998). 360 degree feedback and leadership development.Leadership Quarterly, 9(4), 423-426.Atwater, L.E., & Yammarino, F.J. (1992). Does self-other agreement on leadershipperceptions moderate the validity of leadership and performance prediction?Personnel Psychology, 45,141-164.Awtater, L., Roush, P. & Fischthal, A. (1995). The influence of upward feedback onself and follower ratings of leadership. Personnel Psychology, 48, 35-59.Bannister, B.D. (1986). Performance outcome feedback and attributional feedback:Interactive effects on recipient responses. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(2),203-210.Barclay, J.H., & Harland, L.K. (1995). Peer performance appraisals: The impact ofrater competence, rater location, and rating correctability on fairness perceptions.Group & Organization Management, 20, 39-60.Baumeister, R. F. (1989). Self-presentational motivation and personality differences inself-esteem. Journal of Personality, 57, 574-579.Becker, T.E., & Klimoski, R.J. (1989). A field study of the relationship between theorganizational feedback environment and performance. Personnel Psychology,42, 343-358.Berk, A.R. (1986). Performance Assessment: Methods and Applications. Baltimore:The Johns Hopkins University Press.Bernardin, H.J. (1986). Subordinate appraisal: A valuable source of information aboutmanagers. Human Resource Management, 25(3), 39-60.Bernardin, H.J., Dahmus, S.A., & Redmon, G. (1993). Attitudes of first-linesupervisors toward subordinate appraisals. Human Resource Management, 32,315-324.Bernardin, J.H., & Beatty, R.W. (1987). Can subordinate appraisal enhancemanagerial productivity? Sloan Management Review, 28(4), 63-73.Bohl, D.L. (1996). Minisurvey: 360-degree appraisals yield superior results, surveyshows. Compensation and Benefits Review, Septembe/October, 16-19.Boulter, N., Dalziel, M., & Hill, J., (1996), People and Competencies, N.Y.: KoganPage.Boyatzis, R. E., (1982), The Competence Manager: A Model for Effective Performance, NewYork: John Wiley & Sons.Borman, W.C. (1974). The rating of individuals in organizations: An alternateapproach. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 12,105-124.Burke, R.J., & Wilcox, D.S. (1969). Characteristic of effective employee performancereview and development interview. Personnel Psychology, 22, 291-305.Campbell, J. D. (1990). Self-esteem and clarity of the self-concept. Journal ofPersonality and Social Psychology, 59, 538-549.Cardy, L.R. & Dobbins, H.G. (1994). Performance Appraisal: AlternativePerspectives. Cinicinnati: South-Western.Cascio, W.F. (1995). Managing Human Resource. McGraw-Hill.Cascio, W.F. (1998). Applied Psychology in Personnel Management. NJ: Prentice-Hall.Cederbolm, D., & Lounsbbury, J.W. (1980). An investigation of user accpetance ofpeer evaluations. Personnel Psychology, 33, 567-579.Cooper, R., & Schindler, S., (1998), Business Research Methods, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill, Inc.Church, A. H., & Bracken, D.W. (1997). 360-degree feedback system. Thousand Oaks,CA: Sage Publications.Dalton, M. (1997). Are competency models a waste? Training and Development, 46-49.Dansereau, F., Cashman, J.,& Graen, G.B.(1973).Instrumentality theory and equity theory as complementary approaches in predicting the relationship of leadership and turnover among managers. Organization Behavior and Human Performance, 10, 184-200.Dansereau, F., Graen, G., & Haga, W.J. (1975). A vertical dyad linkage approach otleadership in formal organizations. Organizational Behavior and HumanPerformance, 13, 46-78.DeGregorio, M.B. (1991). An investigation of the influence of self-other feedbackcongruence on feedback acceptance. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting ofthe society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, St. Louis, MO.Deleon, L. & Ewen, A.J. (1997). Multi-source performance appraisals. Review ofPublic Personnel Administration, 17(1), pp. 22-36.Denisi, A.S., & Mitchell, J.L. (1978). An analysis of peer ratings as predictors andcriterion measures and a proposed new application. Academy of ManagementReview, 3, 369-374.Dessler, G. (1996). Human Resource Management. N.J.: Prentice Hall, Inc.Dienesch, R.M., & Liden, R.C. (1986). Leader-member exchange model of leadership:A critique and further development. Academy of Management Review, 11, 618-634.Dobbins, G. H., Cardy, R. L., & Truxillo, D. M. (1988). The effects of purpose ofappraisal and individual differences in stereotypes of woman on sex differencesin performance ratings: A laboratory and field study. Journal of AppliedPsychology, 73, 551-558.Duchon, D., Green, S.G., & taber, T.D. (1986). Vertical dyad linkage: A longitudinalassessment of antecedents, measures, and consequences. Journal of AppliedPsychology, 71, 56-60.Facteau, C.L., Facteau, J.D., Schoel, L.C., Russell, J.A. & Poteet, M.L. (1998).Reactions of leaders to 360-degree feedback from subordinates and peers.Leadership Quarterly, 9(4), 427-448.Ferris, G. R., Yates, V. L., Gilmore, D. C., & Rowland, K. M. (1985). The influence ofsubordinate age on performance ratings and causal attributions. PersonnelPsychology, 38, 545-557.Fishel, B. (1998). A new perspective: How to get the real story from attitude surveys,Training. February, 91-94.Fox, S., & Dinur, Y. (1988). Validity of self-assessment: A field evaluation.PersonnelPsychology, 41, 581-592.Funderburg, S.A., & Levy, P.E. (1997). The influence of individual and contextualvariables on 360-degree feedback system attitudes. Group & OrganizationManagement, 22(2), 210-235.Gatewood, D. R., & Field, S. H., (1998), Human Resource Selection, Orlando, FL:The Dryden Press.Gorss, F.A. & Levy, P.E. (1998). Do 360-degree feedback appraisal predictmanagerial effectiveness? Paper presented at the 13th Annual Conference of theSociety for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Texas: Inc. Dallas.Graen, G. & Cashman, J. (1975). A role-making model of leadership in formalorganization: A development approach, in J. G. Hunt & L. L. Larson (eds.),Leadership Frontiers (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1975), 143-65.Graen, G., Novak, M. A. & Sommerkamp, P. (1982). The effects of leader-memtberexchange and job design on production and satisfaction: Testing a dualattachment model. Organizational Behavior and Humana Performance, 30,109-131.Guglieliemino, P. J., (1979),“Developing the top-level executive for the 1980’s andbeyond”, Training and Development, pp.12-14.Halperin, K., & Snyder, C.R., Shenkel, R.J., & Houston, B.K. (1976). Effects ofsource status and message favorability on accpetance of personality feedback.Journal of Applied Psychology, 61(1), 142-147.Harris, M.M., & Schaubroeck, J. (1988). A meta-analysis of self-supervisor, self-peer,and peer-superiivor ratings. Personnel Psychology, 41, 43-62.Harvey, R. (1991). Job analysis. In M. Dunnette & L. Hough (Eds.), Handbook ofindustrial and organizational psychology(2nd ed.). Palo Alto, CA: ConsultingPsychologists Press, Inc.Hayes, J.L. (1979). A new look at managerial competence: The AMA model of wrthyperformance. Management Review, 68(11), 1198-1200.Hazukua, J.F., Healett, S.A. & Schneider, R.J. (1993). The impact of 360-degreefeedback on management skills development. Human Resource Management, 32,325-351.Hegarty, W. (1974). Using subordinate ratings to elicit behavioral changes insupervisor. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59, 764-766.Hellervik, L.W., Hazucha, J.F., & Schneider, R.J. (1992). Behavior change:Models ,methods, and a review of the evidence . In M. D. Dunnette &L.Hough(Eds.). Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 30,Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists.Hogan, E.A. (1987). Effects of prior expectations on performance ratings: Alongitudinal study. Academy of Management Journal, 30,354-368.Ilgen, D.R., Fisher, C.D., & Taylor, M.S. (1979). Consequences of individualfeedback on behavior in organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 349-371.Jones, E.E., & Nisbett, R.E. (1971). Performance appraisal — a new look. PersonnelPsychology, 16-18.Kalpan, R.E. (1993). 360-degree feecback plus: Boosting the power of coworkerratings for executives. Human Resource Management, 32, 299-314.Kane, J.S., & Lawler, E.E. (1978). Methods of peer assessment. PsychologicalBulletin, 85, 555-586.Katz, R.L. (1995). Skill of an effective administrator. Harvard Business Review, 33,33-42.Kinicki, A.J., & Vecchio, R.P. (1994). Influences on the quality of supervisor subordinate relations: The role of time pressure, organizational commitment,and locus of control. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15, 75-82.Klimoski, R.J., & London, M. (1974). Role of the rater in performace appraisal.Journal of Applied Psychology, 51, 369-381.Kochanski, T. J., & Ruse, H. D., (1996),“Designing a competency-based humanresources organization”, Human Resource Management, pp.19-33.Kochanski, T. J., (1996), “ Introduction to special issue on human resourcecompetencies”, Human Resource Management, pp.3-6.Kochanski, T. J., & Ruse, H. D., (1996),“Designing a competency-based humanresources organization”, Human Resource Management, pp.19-33.Kochanski, T. J., (1996), “ Introduction to special issue on human resourcecompetencies”, Human Resource Management, pp.3-6.Landy, F. & Farr, J. (1980). Performance Rating. Psychological Bulletin, 87, 72-107.Latham, G.P., & Wexley, K.N. (1994). Increasing productivity through performanceappraisal. N.Y.: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.Lazer, R.I., & Wikstrom, W.S. (1979). Appraising managerial performance: Currentpractices and future directions. NY: Conference Board.Levine, E.L. (1980). Introductory remarks for the symposium: Organizationalapplications of self-appraisal and self-assessment: Another look, PersonnelPsychology, 33, 259-262.Liden, R.C., & Graen, G. (1980). Generalizability of the vertical dyad linkage modelof leadership. Academy of Management Journal, 23, 451-465.Locher, A. H., & Teel, K. S.(1988). Appraisal trends. Personnel Journal, 67, 139-145.London, M. & Beatty, R. (1993). 360-degree feedback as a competitive advantage.Human Resource Management, 32,. 353-372.London, M., & Wohler, A.J. (1991). Agreement between subordinates and self-ratingsin upward feedback. Personnel Psychology, 44, 375-390.Longenecker, C.O., Sims, H.P. & Gioia, D.A. (1987). Accountability: The achilles’heel of multisource feedback. Group & Organizational Management, 22(2),.162-184.Maxine A. Dalton (1998)Maximizing the Value of 360-Degree Feedback. Jossey-Bassp 76McCall, M. W., & Lombardo, M. M., & Morrison, A. M., (1988), The Lessons ofExperience: How Successful Executives Develop on the Job, Lexington MA:Lexington Books.McClelland, D. C. (1973). Testing for competence review discussion: Making itconstructive. Personnel Journal, 56, 508-511.McCauley, C., & Lombardo, M. (1989). Diagnosing management development needs:An instrument based on how managers develop. Journal of Management, 15,389-403.McEovy, G.M., & Buller, P.F. (1987). User acceptance of peer appraisals in anindustrial setting. Personnel Psychology, 40, 785-797.Meyer, H.H. (1991). A solution to the performance appraisal feedback enigma.Academy of Management Executive, 5(1), 68-76.Miborrow, G. (1988). Crafty Management. Management Today, 5.Milliman, J.F., Zawacki, R.A., Norman, C., Powell, L. & Kirksey, J. (1994).Companies evaluate employees from all aspects. Personnel Journal, 73, 99-103.Moorman, R.H. (1991). Relationship between organizational justice andorganizational citizenship behaviors: Do fairness perception influence employeecitizenship? Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(6), 845-855.Moses, J., Hollenbeck, G.P. & Sorcher, M. (1993). Other people’s expectations.Human Resource Management, 32, 283-297.Moulton, H.W. (1993). Executive Development: Preparing for the 21th Century. N.Y.:Oxford University Press.Muchinsky, P.M. (1997). Psychology Applied to Work: An Introduction to Industrialand Organizational Psychology, 4th ed., California: Brooks/Cole.Murphy, K.R. & Cleveland, J.N. (1995). Understanding Performance Appraisal.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.Nathan, B.R., Mohrman, A.M., & Milliman, J. (1991). Interpersonal relations as acontext for the effects of appraisal interviews: On performance and satisfation:A longitudinal study. Academy of Management Journal, 34(2), 352-369.Nisbett, R.E., & Wilson, T.D. (1977). Telling more than we can know: Verbal reportson mental processes. Psychological Review, 84, 231-259.Nowack, K.M. (1993). 360-degree feedback: The whole story. Training &Development January, 69-72.Nunnally, J. C., (1978), Psychometric Theory, N.Y.︰McGraw-Hill.Parry, B.S. (1998). Just what is a competency? Training, 58-64.Perace, T.L., & Porter, L.W. (1986). Employee responses to formal performanceappraisal feedback. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 211-218Podsakoff, P. M., & Farh, J. L.(1989). Effects of feedback sign and credibility on goal setting and task performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 44, 45-67.Quinn, E.R., Faerman, R.S., Thompson, P.M. & Mcgrath, R.M. (1990). Becoming aMaster Manager: A Competency Framework, N.Y.: John Wiley & Son, Inc.Ralelin, J. A., & Cooledge, A. S., (1995),“From generic to organic competencies”,Human Resource Planning, pp.24-33.Raymond, A. N. (1999). Employee Training & Development, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill.Reynolds, A., (1993), The Trainer’s Dictionary: HRD Terms, Abbreviations,Acronyms, HRD Press.Roadman, H.E. (1964). An industrial use of peer ratings. Journal of AppliedPsychology, 48, 211-214.Rothwell, W. J., & Kazanas, H. C., (1993), The Complete AMA Guide to ManagementDevelopment, NY: American Management Association.-129-Sackett, P. R., DuBois, C. L. Z., & Noe, A. W. (1991). Tokenism in performanceevaluation: The effects of work group representation on male-female and white black differences in performance ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76,263-267.Salancik & Prefeer (1977,1978). An examination of need-satisfication model of job attitudes, Administrative Science Quarterly, 22,427-456Seers, A., Petty, M.M. & Cashman, J.F. (1995). Team-member exchange under teamand traditional management. Group & Organization Management, 20(1), 18-38.Sevy, B.A., Olson, R.D., McGuire, D.P., Fraser, M. & Paajanen, G. (1985).Management Skills Profile Research Report and Technical Manual, MinneapolisMN: Personnel Decision, Inc.Shrauger, S.L., & Osberg, T.M. (1981). The relative accuracy of self-prediction andjudgments by others in psychological assessment. Psychological Bulletin, 90,322-351.Smither, J.W., London, M., Vasilopoulos, N.L., Reilly, R.R., Millsap, R.E. &Salvemini, N. (1995). An examination of the effect of an upward feedbackprogram overtime. Personnel Psychology, 48, 1-34.Smither, P.C. (1976). Behaviors , results, and organizational effectiveness: Theproblem of criteria. In Dunnette MD (Ed.), Handbook of Industrial andOrganizational Psychology(2nd ed., 745-755). Chicago: Rand-Mcnally.Spencer, L. & Spencer, M. (1993). Competence At Work: Models for SuperiorPerformance, N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Thornton, G. C. (1980). Psychometric properties of self-appraisals of jobperformance,.Personnel Psychology, 33, 262-271.Tornow, W.W. (1993). Editor’s note: Introduction to special issue on 360-Degreefeedback. Human Resource Management, 32(2&3), 211-219.Tornow, W.W.(1993). Perceptions or reality: Is multi-perspective measurement ameans or an end? Human Resource Management. 32(2&3), 221-229.Tornow, W Walter (1998)Maximizing the Value of 360-Degree Feedback. Jossey-Bassp Preface xiii,76-77,89-99,120. 162-164, 249-256,Tuckman, B., & Oliver, W. (1968). Effectiveness of feedback to teachers as a functionof source. Personnel Psychology, 59, 297-301.Ulrich D, Zenger J , Smallwood N (1999)Resulted-Based Leadership HBS Press 3-5, 20- 23.Van Velsor, E. & Leslie, J.B. (1991). Feedback to managers 1991, reprots #149R –R. Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership.Waldman, D.A. (1997). Predictors of employee preferences for multirater and Groupbased performance appraisal. Group and Organization Management, 22, 264-287.Waldman, D.A., & Bowen, D.E. (1998). The acceptability of 360-degree appraisals: Acustomer-supplier relationship perceptive. Human Resource Management, 37,117-129.Wexley, K.N., & Baldwin, T.T. (1986). Performance appraisal: An update, InRowland KM, Ferris GR (Ed.). Research in Personnel and Human ResourcesManagement, Greemwocj, CT: JAI Press. 2, 35-79.Williams, J.R. & Lueke, S.B. (1999). 3600 feedback system effectiveness: Test of amodel in a field setting. Journal of Quality Management, 4(1), 23-49.Wilosn, McCauley & Kelly-Radford. (1998)Maximizing the Value of 360-Degree Feedback. Jossey-Bassp. 120Yammarino, F. & Atwater, L.E. (1993). Understanding self-perception accuracy:implications for human resources management. Human Resource Management,32, 231-249.Yammarino, F. & Atwater, L.E. (1997). Do managers see themselves as others seethem? Implications of self-other rating a agreement for human resourcemanagement. Organizational Dynamics, 25(4), 35-44.Yeung, K. A., (1996),“Competencies for HR professionals: An interview withRichard E. Boyatzis”, Human Resource Management, pp.119-131.Yukl, G.A. (1987). A new taxonomy for integrating diverse perspectives onmanagerial behavior, American Psychological Association Meeting, New York.Yukl, G.A. (1989). Managerial leadership: A new of theory and research,.Journal ofManagement, 251-89.Zeme, R., & Zemke, S. (1999). Putting Competencies to work. Training, 70-76.Zuckerman, M. (1979). Attribution of success and failure revisited , or themotivational bias is alive and well in attribution theory. Journal of Personality,47, 245-287.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊