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研究生:江玫君
研究生(外文):Chiang, Mei-Chun
論文名稱:中國式領導模式之比較研究:以中國大陸浙江省與台灣地區普通中學為例
論文名稱(外文):The Comparative Research of Chinese Leadership Models: The Case of Primary High School between Zhejiang Province, Mailand China and Taiwan Region
指導教授:康自立康自立引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kang, Tze-Li
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:工業教育學系
學門:教育學門
學類:專業科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:430
中文關鍵詞:中國式領導模式領導效能文化中國大陸
外文關鍵詞:Chinese Leadership ModelLeadership effectivenessCultureChina
相關次數:
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摘 要
本研究係應用康自立(民86)所建構之「中國式領導模式」,期冀由文化層面,編製「普通中學領導行為量表」,參考國內外文獻建構「海峽兩岸文化量表」及「領導效能量表」,以探討文化及領導行為各構面,對領導效能之影響。
本研究採問卷調查法,以中國大陸浙江省及台灣地區普通中學教職員為母群體,應用分層隨機抽樣方式,在中國大陸浙江省,發出量表2,290份,回收量表1,082份,回收率47.25%,可用量表1,067份,可用率98.6%;在台灣地區,發出量表1,115份,回收量表741份,回收率66.46%,可用量表725份,可用率97.8%。問卷資料以因素分析、t考驗、F考驗、Wilk’s Λ多變項變異數分析、皮爾森積差相關、多元逐步迴歸分析及徑路分析等統計方法,將所得資料予以處理分析,以考驗研究假設,做為資料解釋的依據,並作成具體結論與建議,俾供海峽兩岸學校行政領導之參考。
依據文獻探討和問卷調查資料之統計分析結果,本研究獲得下列之結論:
一、 發展「海峽兩岸文化量表」、「普通中學領導行為量表」、及「領導效能量表」,並驗証這三種量表可以作為測量海峽兩岸普通中學文化、領導行為及領導效能的適當工具。
二、 海峽兩岸在經歷五十年以上的分立、分治後,因而在文化價值觀方面,產生不同的型塑效果。在「權力距離」及「集群主義」文化構面,中國大陸高過於台灣;但是在「柔性作風」、「不確定性避免」及「長期導向」文化構面,則中國大陸又低於台灣。
三、 海峽兩岸普通中學教職員對其主管領導行為感受與期望間,仍有相當的差距,其中,中國大陸浙江省的落差程度,遠勝過於台灣地區之樣本,因此海峽兩岸普通中學教職員皆認為主管在這三個領導行為表現上,仍有努力的空間,且中國大陸普通中學努力的空間則更大。
四、海峽兩岸普通中學教職員對其主管領導效能之評價均列於中上之程度,但在員工滿意度方面,中國大陸對其主管之滿意程度遠高過於台灣。
五、 海峽兩岸領導效能各構面與文化、領導行為感受、期望、差距各構面間皆呈顯著之正相關,証實文化及領導行為,對領導效能具有正面相關之效果。
六、海峽兩岸不同背景變項在領導行為及領導效能具有不同的差異現象。
七、 海峽兩岸對領導效能之預測變項重要順序有所差異。中國大陸浙江省最重要的預測變項為「作之師」領導行為感受;而在台灣地區,最具有預測力之變項則為「作之親」領導行為感受。
八、 海峽兩岸因文化之差異,對領導行為產生直接影響之效果,並透過領導行為,而對領導效能產生間接之影響;同時,領導行為又會對領導效能產生直接正向之影響作用。
依據本研究之結論,茲對海峽兩岸學校領導,做如下之建議:
一、海峽兩岸領導者應重視兩地文化之異同及其變遷。
二、海峽兩岸領導者宜掌握教職員的期望,縮短其期望與感受間之差距,以提高工作滿意度。
三、海峽兩岸普通中學宜加強主管領導知能之培訓,提昇「作之親」及「作之師」二個構面之領導行為,以提高其領導效能
四、海峽兩岸領導者宜培養員工具有「權力距離」與「集群主義」之價值觀,以提高目標達成之效率,並增進員工之滿意度。
五、海峽兩岸領導者宜以「集群主義」、「柔性作風」、「不確定性避免」及「長期導向」等文化價值,搭配「作之親」及「作之師」領導行為,其產生之交互作用,必有助於領導效能之提昇。
六、海峽兩岸領導者宜調和教職員對不同學歷、性別、年齡主管之主觀意識,及不同服務年資、學歷之教職員認知上的差距,以促進成員的合作與團結。
ABSTRACT
This research tended to implement the Chinese Leadership Models established by Dr. Kang, Charles Tze-li (1997) and applicable surveys in the field of primary high school employees among Zhejiang Province, Mainland China and Taiwan region. The purpose of this research was to explore the value of culture, leadership behavior perception and expectation, and leadership behavior difference dimensions and their influences upon leadership effectiveness among the employees of primary high school institutions between the Zhejiang and Taiwan.
This research was constructed, through “Indigenous Leadership Inventory”, “Culture Inventory”, and “ Leadership Effectiveness Inventory” referenced by leadership literatures and documents. After the Inventory was created, scholars with extensive research experience in leadership and testing theory were invited to guide and conduct a pilot test in order to establish the validity and reliability of the research instrument. This research utilized the questionnaire investigation methods on the matrix from the primary high school teachers and employees in Zhejiang province, Mainland China and Taiwan region. Through layers of random sampling, we drew 2,290 questionnaires for Zhejinag and 1,115 copies for Taiwan region. These questionnaires were mailed out to conduct a field test. Then, we collected back 1,082 and 741 copies of questionnaires and generated the effective 1,067 copies for Zhejiang province, Mainland China and 725 questionnaires for Taiwan regions. The research hypothesis were tested on these documented data using varieties of methods including factor analysis, t-test, F-test, Pearson correlation analysis, Wilk’s Λmultivariate variance analysis, multiple stepwise regression, and path analysis. Some concrete conclusions and suggestions were drawn to recommend to the high school leaders between the Zhejiang province, Mainland China and Taiwan.
We concluded the following issues based upon documentation analysis and field test results.
1. We developed the various “Indigenous Leadership Inventory”, “Culture Inventory”, and “ Leadership Effectiveness Inventory” and obtained a good fitness in validity, reliability, and well explained variance of leadership behavior, culture and leadership effectiveness between Zhejiang province, Mainland China and Taiwan.
2. The people from both sides of Zhejiang province, Mainland China and Taiwan experienced more than 50 years separate rulings and possessed different political philosophies and historical events; therefore, people present a different sculpture effect on their cultural value perceptions. Mainland China has a large power distance and collectivenism dimensions than Taiwan region; however, Taiwan region has femininity, stronger uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation dimensions.
3. Both samples sustained relative differences between perceptions and expectations between Zhejiang province, Mainland China and Taiwan samples towards their leadership behavior. That explained the space for the management to strive for. Additionally, the employees of Zhejiang province, Mainland China percepts a higher difference than those of Taiwan region. Therefore, the management of high school from Zhejiang province, Mainland China needed more efforts than those from Taiwan region.
4. The samplers from both Zhejiang province, Mainland China and Taiwan region revealed a medium evaluation on their management leadership effectiveness. However, samplers from Mainland China have a higher level of satisfaction than those from Taiwan in their employee satisfaction.
5. The various dimensions of leadership effectiveness, leadership behavior perceptions and expectations, difference and the value of cultural in both Zhejiang province, Mainland China and Taiwan region display a significant positive correlation. These proved that leadership behavior and culture dimensions have a positive influential effect upon leadership effectiveness.
6. Different management academic background variables in both Zhejiang province, Mainland China and Taiwan region lead to a differential phenomenon on leadership behavior and leadership effectiveness.
7. The importance sequence of the predicted variables on leadership effectiveness revealed differently in Zhejiang province, Mainland China and Taiwan region. In Zhejiang province, the most important predicted factor is the perception of the role of mentor; however, the factor is the perception of the role of parent in Taiwan region.
8. The cultural difference between Zhejiang province, Mainland China and Taiwan region lead to a direct influence effect toward the leadership behavior, and through leadership behavior imposed an indirect influential effect on leadership effectiveness. Simultaneously, leadership behavior will have a direct positive influential factor on leadership effectiveness.
To comprehend the previous conclusions, this research provided the following suggestions toward the primary high school leaders:
1. Leaders from Zhejiang province, Mainland China and Taiwan region should emphasize the cultural difference and its transition.
2. Leaders from Zhejiang province, Mainland China and Taiwan region might control the expectations, shorten the difference between expectations and perceptions and upgrade the work satisfaction.
3. Leaders from Mainland China should strengthen the leadership behavior from role of a mentor to upgrade the leadership effectiveness; while leaders from Taiwan should strengthen the leadership behavior from role of parent to improve leadership effectiveness.
4. Leaders from Zhejiang province, Mainland China and Taiwan region should cultivate the value of large power distance and collectivism, in order to attain the objection of organization and raise the satisfaction of followers directly.
5. Leaders should stress the mediating effect of the role of parent and mentor with the collectivism, femininity, strong uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation, in order to increase the leadership effectiveness indirectly.
6. Leaders should fill up the cognitive gap among employees to differences of the academic experience, sex, age of leaders, and tenure and educational degree of employees.
封面
摘要
ABSTRACT
目錄
圖目錄
表目錄
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究背景與動機
第二節 研究目的
第三節 待答問題與研究假設
第四節 研究範圍及限制
第五節 名詞釋義
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 文化之相關文獻
第二節 領導理論之相關文獻
第三節 領導效能之相關文獻
第四節 文化、領導行為和領導效能之實証文獻
第三章 研究設計與實施
第一節 研究架構
第二節 量表之編製
第三節 量表預試與信、效度分析
第四節 樣本之選取與施測
第五節 統計方法
第四章 結果分析與討論
第一節 樣本分佈情形
第二節 海峽兩岸文化知覺、領導行為、以及領導效能的分佈情形及其差異
第三節 海峽兩岸文化知覺、領導行為、以及領導效能之相關分析
第四節 海峽兩岸背景變項對領導行為、領導效能之差異分析
第四節 海峽兩岸文化知覺、領導行為,對領導效能之預測力
第六節 海峽兩岸領導效能影響因素模式及其因果關係之探討
第五章 結論與建議
第一節 研究發現
第二節 結論
第三節 建議
參考文獻
一、 中文部份
二、 英文部份
附錄
附錄一、中國式領導模式之比較研究-以中國大陸浙江省與台灣地區普通中學為例(預試量表)
附錄二、中國式領導模式之比較研究-以中國大陸浙江省與台灣地區普通中學為例(正式量表)
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