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研究生:巫奇勳
研究生(外文):Chi-Shiun Wu
論文名稱:溫泉與冷水域日本樹蛙蝌蚪的溫度耐受度與行為選溫之研究
論文名稱(外文):Thermal Tolerance and Behavioral Thermoregulation of Buergeria japonica(Rhacophoridae)Tadpoles Living in a Geothermal Hot Spring and a Stream
指導教授:關永才關永才引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yeong-Choy Kam
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:生物學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:67
中文關鍵詞:日本樹蛙蝌蚪溫度耐受度CTMax行為選溫溫泉
外文關鍵詞:Buergeria japonicatadpolethermal toleranceCTMaxbehavioral thermoregulationhot spring
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本研究擬探討日本樹蛙蝌蚪的高溫耐受度與行為選溫。主要的研究目的有兩個:1. 比較日本樹蛙蝌蚪與其他台灣產蛙類蝌蚪的高溫耐受度。2. 日本樹蛙蝌蚪是否會以行為選溫的方式適應溫泉的高溫環境。
從野外採集溫泉(烏來與廬山溫泉)與冷水域(國姓觸口)的日本樹蛙蝌蚪,與拉都希氏蛙、澤蛙、斯文豪氏赤蛙、梭德氏蛙、古氏赤蛙、盤古蟾蜍、褐樹蛙與莫氏樹蛙的蝌蚪做溫度耐受度(CTMax)比較。結果顯示,除了澤蛙蝌蚪,日本樹蛙蝌蚪的溫度耐受度均比其他種類高,且CTMax至少都在41℃以上,消除溫度因子的影響之後,更證實日本樹蛙蝌蚪是一種天生耐高溫的物種。
選溫實驗分為野外與室內兩部分。野外實驗自2000年12月開始,每一個季節(冬、春、夏季)在南投的廬山溫泉分別進行2個天次的觀察。樣區為一塊溫泉流經的微棲地(範圍:220×70cm2),源頭平均水溫約48℃,水流滲出後會因為距離遠近而逐步冷卻,形成天然的梯溫狀態。溫泉池上方以細繩劃分10個細格,並控制蝌蚪數量與期數,之後每2個小時記錄細格的水溫與蝌蚪數目24小時的變化。室內實驗方面,蝌蚪採集自廬山溫泉與國姓,選溫測量於採集三天內完成。
在不同季節,樣區水溫變化很大,但蝌蚪平均的棲息水溫上限都始終維持一致(36.9 ± 2℃),這顯示蝌蚪對微棲地的溫度是有選擇的。由於蝌蚪選擇在固定的溫度範圍內活動,所以從樣區最低水溫與蝌蚪所在水溫的CV值(%)呈現的負相關的結果,換言之,在冬季水溫較低的情況下,蝌蚪的分布較為分散,而隨著春夏季水溫升高時,蝌蚪的分布範圍則變得狹窄,這更進一步顯示蝌蚪的分布是受水溫上升所影響。在夏季近中午時,在日照直射下,樣區最低水溫(最末端)已急劇升高至37.5℃,此時蝌蚪有明顯聚集在末端以避開高溫的現象。比較溫泉與冷水域蝌蚪的選溫,顯示前者(28.2±2.38℃)選溫較後者(24.8±4.3℃)高,同時前者 (CV=8.4%)選溫能力也較後者強(CV=17.3%),但兩者的選溫都沒有季節性的差異。結果顯示高溫度耐受度與行為選溫是日本樹蛙蝌蚪因應溫泉高溫環境變化的主要方式。
I determined the critical thermal maxima (CTMax) of Buergeria japonica tadpoles inhabiting in streams and geothermal hot springs. I also measured the CTMax of tadpoles of other species whose larvae also live in the streams. The CTMax of Buergeria japonica tadpoles in both habitats were over 41o C and significantly higher than those of other species except Rana limnocharis.
I studied the temperature selection of B. japonica tadpoles in the field. I set up a 220 cm X 70 cm plot in that at one end the hot-spring water seeped from rocks can be as high as 48℃. As the water flow through the plot, it cools gradually, forming a temperature gradient. The plot was divided into 10 sections where I studied the spatial distribution of tadpoles in the winter, spring, and summer. For each season, I selected 2 separated days where I recorded the tadpole abundance and water temperatures in each section once every 2 h for 24 h. The profiles of temperature gradients in the plot varied among seasons, but the upper temperatures that tadpoles selected in each season were similar (ca 36.9℃). In the winter, the temperature gradient range of the plot was lower, and tadpoles can be found in majority of the sections. In contrast, in the spring and summer, the temperature gradient range of the plot was higher, and tadpoles can be found in cooler sections of the plot, especially around noontime when insulation was strong. Results suggest that high temperature tolerance and behavioral thermoregulation are the main means of B. japonica tadpoles to cope with the high temperature environment in the hot springs.
致謝…………………………………………………………………Ⅰ
中文摘要……………………………………………………………Ⅱ
英文摘要……………………………………………………………Ⅲ
目錄…………………………………………………………………Ⅳ
表目錄………………………………………………………………Ⅴ
圖目錄………………………………………………………………Ⅵ
本研究緣由與目的…………………………………………………1
文獻探討……………………………………………………………3
材料與方法…………………………………………………………8
結果…………………………………………………………………19
討論…………………………………………………………………25
參考文獻……………………………………………………………36
表1∼表8……………………………………………………………46
圖1∼圖15 …………………………………………………………52
附錄1 ………………………………………………………………67
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