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研究生:林靖敏
論文名稱:南海岩心(MD972144)之矽藻化石群研究
論文名稱(外文):A diatom flora assemblage study of the core(MD972144) from the south China sea
指導教授:王瑋龍王瑋龍引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:生物學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:66
中文關鍵詞:南海矽藻
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摘要
化石矽藻是探求古海洋環境的良好指標,能夠提供對不同環境因子的了解。本研究透過分類形態學的基礎,分析南海岩心MD972144(北緯19.36度;東經120.53度)之矽藻化石群的種類及其豐度,了解其群集組合的變化和物種豐度的改變。結果顯示矽藻化石群共計66屬245種,其保存度良好,較常見的種類有Chaetoceros spp.、Thalassionema nitzschioides和Thalassiothrix longissima,前者相對豐度在5-30%間變化,後兩者相對豐度在5-70%間變化,並相互交替消長成為優勢種。群集的組成以熱帶、亞熱帶大洋浮游種類為主,仍有一定比例的淺海種和淡水種。豐度受到陸源物質的稀釋無法反應出生產力的變化,但其高值仍可指示湧升流的存在。黑潮特徵種和湧升流指標種的相對豐度變化,呈現冰期低、間冰期高的現象。顯示本區湧升流的強度在冰期因黑潮的影響變小而減弱,反應出低生產力的海洋環境;在間冰期則是呈現增加的趨勢,反應出高生產力的海洋環境。矽藻化石群的豐度、種數、多樣性指數和種類組成等在氧同位素第6階進入第5階的區段皆有劇烈的變化。暖水指標的趨勢和氧同位素曲線大致相符,呈現冰期低、間冰期高的變化,即冰期時海水表面溫度較低、間冰期時較高,可視為東北季風的指標。Q型因子分析MD972144的結果顯示,第一因子可解釋88.5%的變方,主要反應暖水團的訊息,並呈現冰期低、間冰期高的趨勢和暖水指標的變化一致。本岩心矽藻化石群集的特徵可歸納為在冰期時暖水指標低、黑潮特徵種和湧升流指標種的相對豐度低,對應冰期時的海洋環境為海水表層溫度下降、黑潮影響弱,生產力低;反之,間冰期時暖水指標高、黑潮特徵種和湧升流指標種的相對豐度低,對應間冰期時的海洋環境為海水表層溫度上升、黑潮影響強,生產力高。
Abstract
Fossil diatoms can be excellent indicators of the marine paleoenvironments. They have great potential for studies of marine plaeoceanography and provide insight into a variety of environmental conditions. The Core MD972144(19°36’N, 120°53’E) recovered from the South China Sea was examined for the changes in diatom abundance and assemblage composition based on taxonomy and morphology. A total of 245 diatom taxa were identified throughout the core. Among them, Chaetoceros spp., Thalassionema nitzschioides and Thalassiothrix longissima were the common taxa and their relative abundance ranged from 5% to 70%. The diatom assemblage in this core was mainly composed of tropical-subtropocal planktonic species, but it also contained a certain number of neritic and freshwater diatoms, 6-33% and 0-6%, respectively. The abundance failed to explain the variety of productivity due to the dilution of terrigenous materials. But its high value still implied the upwelling occurrence. The variations of relative abundance in the characteristic species of Kuroshio and upwelling indicators showed that productivity was lower during glacial periods, but higher during interglacial periods. There were strong varieties in abundance, species number, diversity index and species composition from stage 6 to stage 5. The trend of the diatom temperature index (Tw) corresponded with the oxygen isotope curves and its values were lower in glacial times, but higher in interglacial times. It meant that the sea surface temperature was lower in glacial times, but higher in interglacial times. Q-mode factor analysis was carried out to analyze the variations of diatom assemblage. It showed that Factor 1, representative of warm-water masses, accounted for 88.5% of the variance. Its loadings dominated over the interglacial periods and were synchronous with the curve of the diatom temperature index. The diatom assemblage of the Core MD972144 during the glacial periods was characterized by lower in the diatom temperature index and the relative abundance of the characteristic species of Kuroshio and upwelling indicators. It corresponded with the marine environments of reducing in the sea surface temperature and high productivity. On the contrary, during the interglacial periods it was characterized by higher in the diatom temperature index and the relative abundance of the characteristic species of Kuroshio and upwelling indicators. It also corresponded with the marine environments of raising in the sea surface temperature and high productivity.
目錄
謝辭----------------------------------------------------------------------------------I
摘要---------------------------------------------------------------------------------II
Abstract--------------------------------------------------------------------------IV
圖表目錄-------------------------------------------------------------------------VI
一、前言-----------------------------------------------------------------------------1
二、前人研究
2.1 文獻探討--------------------------------------------------------------3
2.2 南海環境背景--------------------------------------------------------6
2.3 南海現生矽藻--------------------------------------------------------9
三、材料與方法
3.1 研究材料與採樣----------------------------------------------------10
3.2 岩心樣本的處理----------------------------------------------------10
3.3 樣本的觀察、鑑定與計數-----------------------------------------12
3.4 資料處理-------------------------------------------------------------12
四、結果
4.1 年代模式與沉積速率----------------------------------------------15
4.2 矽藻化石群之分析-------------------------------------------------15
4.3 矽藻相對豐度指標所指示之環境變化-------------------------20
4.4 Q型因子分析-------------------------------------------------------22
五、討論
5.1 氧同位素地層-------------------------------------------------------23
5.2 矽藻保存度的探討-------------------------------------------------23
5.3 Td index的古海洋訊息--------------------------------------------25
5.4 矽藻豐度的古海洋訊息-------------------------------------------27
5.5 Q型因子分析MD972144的環境意義--------------------------32
5.6 矽藻群集的特徵與環境-------------------------------------------33
六、結論---------------------------------------------------------------------------34
參考文獻--------------------------------------------------------------------------37
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